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Transfer Pricing
 
Sometime an Indian company can associated with a foreign company which is situated in other country. Indian company can purchase on high price or sale it on lower price to shift its profit. In this way a part of profit is transferred to foreign company. This foreign company has no relation of PE in India so its profit is not taxable in India. To avoid this, Income Tax has Section 92. Section 92 to 92G has been enacted with a view to calculate reasonable and fair profit in foreign transactions. It is called Transfer Pricing.
 
As per sec 92: Computation of income from international transaction having regard to arm's length price
 (1) Any income arising from an international transaction shall be computed having regard to the arm's length price.
Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that the allowance for any expense or interest arising from an international transaction shall also be determined having regard to the arm's length price.
(2) Where in an international transaction, two or more associated enterprises enter into a mutual agreement or arrangement for the allocation or apportionment of, or any contribution to, any cost or expense incurred or to be incurred in connection with a benefit, service or facility provided or to be provided to any one or more of such enterprises, the cost or expense allocated or apportioned to, or, as the case may be, contributed by, any such enterprise shall be determined having regard to the arm's length price of such benefit, service or facility, as the case may be.
(3) The provisions of this section shall not apply in a case where the computation of income under sub-section (1) or the determination of the allowance for any expense or interest under that sub-section, or the determination of any cost or expense allocated or apportioned, or, as the case may be, contributed under sub-section (2), has the effect of reducing the income chargeable to tax or increasing the loss, as the case may be, computed on the basis of entries made in the books of account in respect of the previous year in which the international transaction was entered into.]
 
This section tells that this will apply when two or more associated enterprises will enter in international transaction. Now what is associated enterprise? As per sec 92A
 
1) For the purposes of this section and sections 92, 92B, 92C, 92D, 92E and 92F, "associated enterprise", in relation to another enterprise, means an enterprise—
     (a)   which participates, directly or indirectly, or through one or more intermediaries, in the management or control or capital of the other enterprise; or
     (b)   in respect of which one or more persons who participate, directly or indirectly, or through one or more intermediaries, in its management or control or capital, are the same persons who participate, directly or indirectly, or through one or more intermediaries, in the management or control or capital of the other enterprise.
(2) [For the purposes of sub-section (1),] two enterprises shall be deemed to be associated enterprises if, at any time during the previous year,—
     (a)   one enterprise holds, directly or indirectly, shares carrying not less than twenty-six per cent of the voting power in the other enterprise; or
     (b)   any person or enterprise holds, directly or indirectly, shares carrying not less than twenty-six per cent of the voting power in each of such enterprises; or
     (c)   a loan advanced by one enterprise to the other enterprise constitutes not less than fifty-one per cent of the book value of the total assets of the other enterprise; or
     (d)   one enterprise guarantees not less than ten per cent of the total borrowings of the other enterprise; or
     (e)   more than half of the board of directors or members of the governing board, or one or more executive directors or executive members of the governing board of one enterprise, are appointed by the other enterprise; or
     (f)   more than half of the directors or members of the governing board, or one or more of the executive directors or members of the governing board, of each of the two enterprises are appointed by the same person or persons; or
     (g)   the manufacture or processing of goods or articles or business carried out by one enterprise is wholly dependent on the use of know-how, patents, copyrights, trade-marks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature, or any data, documentation, drawing or specification relating to any patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process, of which the other enterprise is the owner or in respect of which the other enterprise has exclusive rights; or
     (h)   ninety per cent or more of the raw materials and consumables required for the manufacture or processing of goods or articles carried out by one enterprise, are supplied by the other enterprise or by persons specified by the other enterprise, and the prices and other conditions relating to the supply are influenced by such other enterprise; or
      (i)   the goods or articles manufactured or processed by one enterprise, are sold to the other enterprise or to persons specified by the other enterprise, and the prices and other conditions relating thereto are influenced by such other enterprise; or
     (j)   where one enterprise is controlled by an individual, the other enterprise is also controlled by such individual or his relative or jointly by such individual and relative of such individual; or
     (k)   where one enterprise is controlled by a Hindu undivided family, the other enterprise is controlled by a member of such Hindu undivided family, or by a relative of a member of such Hindu undivided family, or jointly by such member and his relative; or
      (l)   where one enterprise is a firm, association of persons or body of individuals, the other enterprise holds not less than ten per cent interest in such firm, association of persons or body of individuals; or
    (m)   there exists between the two enterprises, any relationship of mutual interest, as may be prescribed.
 
Sec 92B describe international transaction as a transaction between two or more associated enterprises, either or both of whom are non-residents, in the nature of purchase, sale or lease of tangible or intangible property, or provision of services, or lending or borrowing money, or any other transaction having a bearing on the profits, income, losses or assets of such enterprises and shall include a mutual agreement or arrangement between two or more associated enterprises for the allocation or apportionment of, or any contribution to, any cost or expense incurred or to be incurred in connection with a benefit, service or facility provided or to be provided to any one or more of such enterprises.
(2) A transaction entered into by an enterprise with a person other than an associated enterprise shall, for the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to be a transaction entered into between two associated enterprises, if there exists a prior agreement in relation to the relevant transaction between such other person and the associated enterprise; or the terms of the relevant transaction are determined in substance between such other person and the associated enterprise.
If all the conditions mentioned above is satisfied then these transaction should be calculated on Arm’s length price basis. This basis suggests that any transaction should be at the same rate on which transaction will be held with unrelated enterprise. Sec 92C provide some method to calculate Arm’s length price
     (a)   comparable uncontrolled price method;
     (b)   resale price method;
     (c)   cost plus method;
     (d)   profit split method;
     (e)   transactional net margin method;
     (f)   such other method as may be prescribed by the Board.
 
The last method is used when no other method is giving fair price. We should use most appropriate method to calculate Arm’s length price. So no method is fixed it depends on circumstances. In some conditions comparable uncontrolled price method is best and some other case cost plus method will be most appropriate method.
But if AO has reason to believe that data used for Arm’s length price is not reliable or assessee didn’t keep records or the basis is wrong then AO can determine Arm’s length price on its own.
Every person should keep the following information and records:
Name, address and ownership structure of enterprise
Nature and terms of transaction
Basis of Price charged for transaction
Terms with non-related enterprise
Arm’s length price calculation and its basis



Category Income Tax, Other Articles by - CA Prashant Gupta 



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