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Diving into Diligence: Simplifying the Essence of Due Diligence Across All Endeavors

Affluence Advisory , Last updated: 05 March 2024  

What is Due Diligence?

"Due diligence" is an analysis and risk assessment of an impending business transaction. It is the careful and methodological investigation of a business or persons, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care to ensure that information is accurate and to uncover information that may affect the outcome of the transaction.

Due diligence is a comprehensive process in business transactions involving the exchange, review, and appraisal of confidential legal, financial, and other material information between parties before finalizing the transaction.

Companies conduct background checks on clients, customers, and suppliers to ensure accurate disclosure of information. The process involves investigating and evaluating potential risks and opportunities associated with a business opportunity, covering Pre-Transaction, During the Transaction, and Post-Transaction activities.

There are various types of due diligence performed voluntarily before engaging in corporate actions such as mergers, de-mergers, amalgamations etc.

Diving into Diligence: Simplifying the Essence of Due Diligence Across All Endeavors

The objective of Conducting Due Diligence

The purpose of due diligence is to confirm the strategic identification, valuation, and associated risks of the target company. It aims to:

  • Gather essential information.
  • Identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.
  • Enhance bargaining positions.
  • Pinpoint areas necessitating representations and warranties.

The purpose of due diligence can vary depending on the context. Here are some common types of due diligence and their purposes:




  • In Mergers, due diligence is a must. It goes beyond finances and legalities, providing a deep dive into the target company's operations, culture, and future prospects.
  • During a merger or acquisition, a comprehensive examination and audit of a business are essential before any transactions take place.
  • The main objective of the due diligence process in M&A is to guarantee that companies are making informed decisions, increasing the likelihood of enhancing value in the transaction.
  • Selecting the right merger partner is an art, requiring careful consideration of various factors.


  • Risk Assessment: Due diligence helps identify and assess potential risks associated with the target company. This includes financial risks, legal issues, operational challenges, and any other factors that could impact the success of the M&A transaction.
  • Financial Evaluation: It provides a thorough examination of the target company's financial health, ensuring that the financial information presented is accurate and complete. This includes reviewing financial statements, liabilities, and other financial metrics.
  • Legal Compliance: Due diligence ensures that the target company complies with all relevant laws and regulations applicable to them. It includes the examination of contracts, legal obligations, pending litigation, and any potential legal issues that might affect the transaction.
  • Valuation Confirmation: validates the valuation of the target company. It ensures that the price paid for Due diligence the acquisition is reasonable and justified based on the company's assets, liabilities, and potential for future growth.


Meaning and Purpose:

Secretarial Due Diligence involves thorough examination of Companies Legal matters and Regulatory Compliances applicable to it as per nature of the Company and industry within which it operates. In General, the Companies Act, 2013, Securities Laws and Industry Laws are applicable to the Company and Due Diligence provides that Company is in Compliance with regulatory provision. 

Scope of Secretarial Due Diligence

Legal Compliance

  • Verify compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and statutory requirements.
  • Assess adherence to the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and other relevant legislation as may be applicable to the Company.

Corporate Governance

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the company's corporate governance structure.
  • Review Board structures, roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes as per Companies Act, 2013 and other Laws, Rules and Regulation applicable.

Records and Registers

  • Review the maintenance of statutory records and registers as required by law.
  • Confirm that all necessary documents are up-to-date and in order.

Shareholder Compliance

  • Assess compliance with regulations related to shareholders' rights and obligations.
  • Verify the proper conduct of shareholder meetings and resolutions as per Companies Act, 2013.

Regulatory Filings

  • Confirm the timely and accurate filing of necessary documents with regulatory and statutory authorities.
  • Assess any pending legal or regulatory issues.
  • Compliance with any notice received from any Statutory or Regulatory authority.

The scope of Secretarial Due Diligence is comprehensive, aiming to provide a detailed understanding of a company's legal and governance framework. This process is crucial for investors, acquirers, and stakeholders to make informed decisions and ensure the legal health and compliance of the target company.


  • Financial Due Diligence is like a thorough checkup for a company's financial matters. It dives deep into the company's finances, looking at audited statements from the last three years, recent unaudited statements, and how they compare to previous years. It also checks things like accounting policies, internal audit procedures, the stability of earnings and cash flow, the value of assets, possible debts, and the tax implications of different financial structures.
  • Due Diligence also examines the company's future plans, like projections and how they came up with those numbers, spending plans, and details about inventory, customers, and debts. It even looks at the company's major customers, costs, profit margins, and the status of contracts. It's like putting all the financial pieces of the puzzle together.
  • Financial Due Diligence gives confidence to both the buying company and the company being bought. It ensures that all the financial, business, and strategic assumptions being made are sound and accurate.
  • Tax Due Diligence: This part checks if the company is paying the right amount of taxes and if there are any ongoing tax-related issues. It involves analyzing tax compliance, possible tax issues, pricing of transactions within the company, identifying risky areas, and looking for opportunities to save on taxes.

In simple terms, Financial Due Diligence is like making sure a company's financial health is good, and Tax Due Diligence is double-checking that they're doing their taxes right and not getting into any trouble with tax authorities. It's like a financial checkup to avoid surprises down the road.


Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) is the set of rules that oversees how foreign currency operates in India. Its main goal is to make it easier for international trade, balance financial transactions, support organized growth, and regulate the foreign exchange market in India.

For companies involved in cross-border transactions in India, complying with FEMA regulations is a significant challenge. The increasing flow of funds, both incoming and outgoing, has heightened the scrutiny on adhering to foreign exchange rules.

FEMA Due Diligence is a process that helps companies navigate these challenges. It serves to prevent negative situations and ensures that companies follow the laws related to foreign exchange. This due diligence covers various types of cross-border transactions, including imports, exports, debt funding, equity capital infusion, and the transfer of shares.

The following are covered under the FEMA Due diligence:

  • Capital Accounts transactions
  • Current account transaction
  • Currency Transactions
  • Regulations, Master Directions and Circulars issued by RBI
  • FDI Policy, approvals
  • Setting up of Business through Liaison office, Branch office, project office, wholly owned subsidiaries, joint ventures, foreign institutional investors, and foreign venture capital investors, Non-Resident of India/ person of Indian origin.


In summary, the practice of due diligence is crucial across various contexts, ensuring informed decision-making and risk management. Whether applied to business transactions, investments, legal matters, or research, a thorough examination of pertinent information is essential. Employing a comprehensive due diligence approach allows individuals and organizations to uncover risks, identify opportunities, and make well-considered decisions.

This process entails diligent investigation, critical analysis, and a proactive mindset to navigate complexities. The commitment to due diligence is foundational for success, fostering transparency, trust, and accountability.

Published by

Affluence Advisory
(corporates )
Category Corporate Law   Report



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