Worldwide, the micro and small enterprises (MSEs) have been accepted as the engine of economic growth and for promoting equitable development. The MSEs constitute over 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies and are credited with generating the highest rates of employment growth and account for a major share of industrial production and exports. Micro, small and medium enterprises are also referred to as Small and medium enterprises or SMEs, and small and medium-sized businesses or SMBs in some countries.
The abbreviation SME occurs commonly in the European Union and in international organizations, such as the World Bank, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. The term small and medium-sized businesses or SMBs is predominantly used in the United States of America (USA). In the European Union and USA , SMB's are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits. The business is classified as per the number of employees employed in the business.
In South Africa the term SMME for Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises is used. Elsewhere in Africa, they use MSME for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
In India, the sector is generally referred to as the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). MSMEs play a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country. In recent years the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost.
IMPORTANCE OF MSME SECTOR IN INDIA
The development of the micro, small and medium enterprises (SME) sector is on the priority of Government Agenda. As per the Results-Framework Document (RFD) for Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (2012-2013), the Mission of the government is to – “Promote growth and development of globally competitive Micro, small and Medium Enterprises, including Khadi, Village and Coir industries, in cooperation with concerned Ministries / Departments, State Governments and other stakeholders by providing support to existing enterprises and encouraging creation of new enterprises. To endeavor to achieve a cumulative growth of 40%-50% in the number of registered enterprises by the end of 12th Plan and enhance this sector's contribution to GDP from the present 8% to 10% by the end of 12th Plan.”
The role of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the economic and social development of the country is well established. As per the Report of the Working Group on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Growth for 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017), the sector accounts 45% of the manufacturing output and 40% of total exports of the country. The sector provides employment to about 69 million persons through 26 million enterprises throughout the country. Over 6000 products ranging from traditional to high-tech items are being manufactured by the MSMEs in the country. The labour to capital ratio in MSMEs and the overall growth in the sector is much higher than in the large industries. The geographic distribution of the MSMEs is also more even. Thus, MSMEs are important for the national objectives of growth with equity and inclusion.
Over the years, the small scale sector in India has progressed from the production of simple consumer goods to the manufacture of many sophisticated and precision products like electronics control systems, micro wave components, electro medical equipments, etc. The process of economic liberalization and market reforms has further exposed these enterprises to increasing levels of domestic and global competition.
The MSME sector in India is highly heterogeneous in terms of the size of the enterprises, variety of products and services produced and the levels of technology employed. While one end of the MSME spectrum contains highly innovative and high growth enterprises, more than 94% of MSMEs are unregistered, with a large number established in the informal or unorganized sector. The sector has a high growth potential and performs a critical role in the manufacturing and value chains. Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) sector is characterized by low investment requirement, operational flexibility and location wise mobility.
As per the quick estimates of 4th All-India Census of MSMEs, the number of enterprises is estimated to be about 26 million and these provide employment to an estimated 60 million persons. Of the 26 million MSMEs, only 1.5 million are in the registered segment while the remaining 24.5 million (94%) are in the unregistered segment.
The State-wise distribution of MSMEs show that more than 55% of these enterprises are in 6 States, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Further, about 7% of MSMEs are owned by women and more than 94% of the MSMEs are proprietorships or partnerships.
MSMEs in the country manufacture over 6,000 products. Some of the major subsectors in terms of manufacturing output are food products (18.97%), textiles and readymade garments (14.05%), basic metal (8.81%), chemical and chemical products (7.55%), metal products (7.52%), machinery and equipments (6.35%), transport equipments (4.5%), rubber and plastic products (3.9%), furniture (2.62%), paper and paper products (2.03%) and leather and leather products (1.98%).
The importance and contribution of the SME sector to the economic growth and prosperity is well established. Towards this, Government's policy initiatives like enactment of the Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006, pruning of reserved SSI list, advising Financial Institutions to increase their flow of credit to the SME sector, are all initiatives towards boosting entrepreneurship, investment and growth. Reservation of items for exclusive manufacture in MSME sector statutorily provided for in the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951, has been one of the important policy measures for promoting this sector.
DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF MSMEs
The President under Notification dated 9th May 2007 has amended the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961. Pursuant to this amendment, Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries (Krishi Evam Gramin Udyog Mantralaya) and Ministry of Small Scale Industries (Laghu Udyog Mantralaya) have been merged into a single Ministry, namely, “MINISTRY OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SUKSHMA LAGHU AUR MADHYAM UDYAM MANTRALAYA)” .
The administration of the MSME sector falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (Sukshma Laghu Aur Madhyam Udyam Mantralaya), of the Government of India. It designs and implements policies and programmes through its field organisations and attached offices for promotion and growth of MSME sector.
The Office of Development Commissioner (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) functions as the nodal Development Agency under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises(MSME). It is the apex body to advise, coordinate and formulate policies and programmes for the development and promotion of the MSME Sector. The office also maintains liaison with Central Ministries and other Central/State Government agencies/organisations financial institutions.
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