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ACCOUNTING STANDARD (AS) 30

Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement

Hedge accounting

Definitions Relating to Hedge Accounting

8.14 A firm commitment is a binding agreement for the exchange of a specified quantity of resources at a specified price on a specified future date or dates.

8.15 A forecast transaction is an uncommitted but anticipated future transaction.

8.16 Functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates.

8.17 A hedging instrument is (a) a designated derivative or (b) for a hedge of the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates only, a designated non-derivative financial asset or non-derivative financial liability whose fair value or cash flows are expected to offset changes in the fair value or cash flows of a designated hedged item (paragraphs 81-86 and Appendix A paragraphs A114-A117 elaborate on the definition of a hedging instrument).

8.18 A hedged item is an asset, liability, firm commitment, highly probable forecast transaction or net investment in a foreign operation that (a) exposes the entity to risk of changes in fair value or future cash flows and (b) is designated as being hedged (paragraphs 87-94 and Appendix A paragraphs A118-A125 elaborate on the definition of hedged items).

8.19 Hedge effectiveness is the degree to which changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to a hedged risk are offset by changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedging instrument (see Appendix A paragraphs A129-A138).

Hedging

80. If there is a designated hedging relationship between a hedging instrument and a hedged item as described in paragraphs 95-98 and Appendix A paragraphs A126-A128, accounting for the gain or loss on the hedging instrument and the hedged item should follow paragraphs 99-113.

Hedging Instruments

Qualifying Instruments

81. This Standard does not restrict the circumstances in which a derivative may be designated as a hedging instrument provided the conditions in paragraph 98 are met, except for some written options (see Appendix A paragraph A114). However, a non-derivative financial asset or nonderivative financial liability may be designated as a hedging instrument only for a hedge of a foreign currency risk.

82. For hedge accounting purposes, only instruments that involve a party external to the reporting entity (i.e., external to the group, segment or individual entity that is being reported on) can be designated as hedging instruments. Although individual entities within a consolidated group or divisions within an entity may enter into hedging transactions with other entities within the group or divisions within the entity, any such intragroup transactions are eliminated on consolidation. Therefore, such hedging transactions do not qualify for hedge accounting in the consolidated financial statements of the group. However, they may qualify for hedge accounting in the individual or separate financial statements of individual entities within the group or in segment reporting provided that they are external to the individual entity or segment that is being reported on.

Designation of Hedging Instruments

83. There is normally a single fair value measure for a hedging instrument in its entirety, and the factors that cause changes in fair value are co-dependent. Thus, a hedging relationship is designated by an entity for a hedging instrument in its entirety. The only exceptions permitted

(a) separating the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the change in intrinsic value of an option and excluding change in its time value; and

(b) separating the interest element and the spot price of a forward contract.

These exceptions are permitted because the intrinsic value of the option and the premium on the forward can generally be measured separately. A dynamic hedging strategy that assesses both the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract can qualify for hedge accounting.

84. A proportion of the entire hedging instrument, such as 50 per cent of the notional amount, may be designated as the hedging instrument in a hedging relationship. However, a hedging relationship may not be designated for only a portion of the time period during which a hedging instrument remains outstanding.

85. A single hedging instrument may be designated as a hedge of more than one type of risk provided that (a) the risks hedged can be identified clearly; (b) the effectiveness of the hedge can be demonstrated; and

(c) it is possible to ensure that there is specific designation of the hedging instrument and different risk positions.

86. Two or more derivatives, or proportions of them (or, in the case of a hedge of currency risk, two or more non-derivatives or proportions of them, or a combination of derivatives and non-derivatives or proportions of them), may be viewed in combination and jointly designated as the hedging instrument, including when the risk(s) arising from some derivatives offset(s) those arising from others. However, an interest rate collar or other derivative instrument that combines a written option and a purchased option does not qualify as a hedging instrument if it is, in effect, a net written option (for which a net premium is received). Similarly, two or more instruments (or proportions of them) may be designated as the hedging instrument only if none of them is a written option or a net written option.

Hedged Items

Qualifying Items

87. A hedged item can be a recognised asset or liability, an unrecognised firm commitment, a highly probable forecast transaction or a net investment in a foreign operation. The hedged item can be (a) a single asset, liability, firm commitment, highly probable forecast transaction or net investment in a foreign operation, (b) a group of assets, liabilities, firm commitments, highly probable forecast transactions or net investments in foreign operations with similar risk characteristics or (c) in a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk only, a portion of the portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities that share the risk being hedged.

88. Unlike loans and receivables, a held-to-maturity investment cannot be a hedged item with respect to interest-rate risk or prepayment risk because designation of an investment as held-tomaturity requires an intention to hold the investment until maturity without regard to changes in the fair value or cash flows of such an investment attributable to changes in interest rates.

However, a held-to-maturity investment can be a hedged item with respect to risks from changes in foreign currency exchange rates and credit risk.

89. For hedge accounting purposes, only assets, liabilities, firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions that involve a party external to the entity can be designated as hedged items. It follows that hedge accounting can be applied to transactions between entities or segments in the same group only in the individual or separate financial statements of those entities or segments and not in the consolidated financial statements of the group. As an exception, the foreign currency risk of an intragroup monetary item (e.g., a payable/receivable between two subsidiaries) may qualify as a hedged item in the consolidated financial statements if it results in an exposure to foreign exchange rate gains or losses that are not fully eliminated on consolidation in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 11, The Effects of Changes in

Foreign Exchange Rates. In accordance with AS 11, foreign exchange rate gains and losses on intragroup monetary item are not fully eliminated on consolidation when the intragroup monetary item is transacted between two group entities that have different functional currencies19. In addition, the foreign currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction may qualify as a hedged item in consolidated financial statements provided that the transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will affect consolidated profit or loss.

Designation of Financial Items as Hedged Items

90. If the hedged item is a financial asset or financial liability, it may be a hedged item with respect to the risks associated with only a portion of its cash flows or fair value (such as one or more selected contractual cash flows or portions of them or a percentage of the fair value) provided that effectiveness can be measured. For example, an identifiable and separately measurable portion of the interest rate exposure of an interest-bearing asset or interest-bearing liability may be designated as the hedged risk (such as a risk-free interest rate or benchmark interest rate component of the total interest rate exposure of a hedged financial instrument).

91. In a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities (and only in such a hedge), the portion hedged may be designated in terms of an amount of a currency (e.g. an amount of rupees, dollars, euro, pounds or rand) rather than as individual assets (or liabilities). Although the portfolio may, for risk management purposes, include assets and liabilities, the amount designated is an amount of assets or an amount of liabilities. Designation of a net amount including assets and liabilities is not permitted. The entity may hedge a portion of the interest rate risk associated with this designated amount. For example, in the case of a hedge of a portfolio containing prepayable assets, the entity may hedge the change in fair value that is attributable to a change in the hedged interest rate on the basis of expected, rather than contractual, repricing dates. When the portion hedged is based on expected repricing dates, the effect that changes in the hedged interest rate have on those expected repricing dates should be included when determining the change in the fair value of the hedged item. Consequently, if a portfolio that contains prepayable items is hedged with a non-prepayable derivative, ineffectiveness arises if the dates on which items in the hedged portfolio are expected to prepay are revised, or actual prepayment dates differ from those expected.

Designation of Non-Financial Items as Hedged Items

92. If the hedged item is a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, it should be designated as a hedged item (a) for foreign currency risks, or (b) in its entirety for all risks, 19 ?Functional currency? is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. because of the difficulty of isolating and measuring the appropriate portion of the cash flows or fair value changes attributable to specific risks other than foreign currency risks.

Designation of groups of items as hedged items

93. Similar assets or similar liabilities are aggregated and hedged as a group only if the individual assets or individual liabilities in the group share the risk exposure that is designated as being hedged. Furthermore, the change in fair value attributable to the hedged risk for each individual item in the group is expected to be approximately proportional to the overall change in fair value attributable to the hedged risk of the group of items.

94. Because an entity assesses hedge effectiveness by comparing the change in the fair value or cash flow of a hedging instrument (or group of similar hedging instruments) and a hedged item (or group of similar hedged items), comparing a hedging instrument with an overall net position (e.g., the net of all fixed rate assets and fixed rate liabilities with similar maturities), rather than with a specific hedged item, does not qualify for hedge accounting.

Hedge Accounting

95. Hedge accounting recognises the offsetting effects on profit or loss of changes in the fair values of the hedging instrument and the hedged item.

96. Hedging relationships are of three types:

(a) fair value hedge: a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment, or an identified portion of such an asset, liability or firm commitment, that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect profit or loss.

(b) cash flow hedge: a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that (i) is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on variable rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction and (ii) could affect profit or loss.

(c) hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation as defined in AS 11.

97. A hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment may be accounted for as a fair value hedge or as a cash flow hedge.

98. A hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting under paragraphs 99-113 if, and only if, all of the following conditions are met.

(a) At the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the entity's risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. That documentation should include identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the entity will assess the hedging instrument's effectiveness in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item?s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk.

(b) The hedge is expected to be highly effective (see Appendix A paragraphs A129-A138) in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk, consistently with the originally documented risk management strategy for that particular hedging relationship.

(c) For cash flow hedges, a forecast transaction that is the subject of the hedge must be highly probable and must present an exposure to variations in cash flows that could ultimately affect profit or loss.

(d) The effectiveness of the hedge can be reliably measured, i.e., the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk and the fair value of the hedging instrument can be reliably measured (see paragraphs 51 and 52 and Appendix A paragraphs A100 and A101 for guidance on determining fair value).

(e) The hedge is assessed on an ongoing basis and determined actually to have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which the hedge was designated.

Fair Value Hedges

99. If a fair value hedge meets the conditions in paragraph 98 during the period, it should be accounted for as follows:

(a) the gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument at fair value (for a derivative hedging instrument) or the foreign currency component of its carrying amount measured in accordance with AS 11 (for a non-derivative hedging instrument) should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss; and

(b) the gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk should adjust the carrying amount of the hedged item and be recognised in the statement of profit and loss. This applies if the hedged item is otherwise measured at cost. Recognition of the gain or loss attributable to the hedged risk in the statement of profit and loss applies even if the hedged item is an available-for-sale financial asset.

100. For a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portion of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities (and only in such a hedge), the requirement in paragraph 99(b) may be met by presenting the gain or loss attributable to the hedged item either:

(a) in a single separate line item within assets, for those repricing time periods for which the hedged item is an asset; or

(b) in a single separate line item within liabilities, for those repricing time periods for which the hedged item is a liability.

The separate line items referred to in (a) and (b) above are presented next to financial assets or financial liabilities. Amounts included in these line items are removed from the balance sheet when the assets or liabilities to which they relate are derecognised.

101. If only particular risks attributable to a hedged item are hedged, recognised changes in the fair value of the hedged item unrelated to the hedged risk are recognised as set out in paragraph 61.

102. An entity should discontinue prospectively the hedge accounting specified in paragraph 99 if:

(a) the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised (for this purpose, the replacement or rollover of a hedging instrument into another hedging instrument is not an expiration or termination if such replacement or rollover is part of the entity?s documented hedging strategy);

(b) the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting in paragraph 98; or

(c) the entity revokes the designation.

103. Any adjustment arising from paragraph 99(b) to the carrying amount of a hedged financial instrument for which the effective interest method is used (or, in the case of a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk, to the separate balance sheet line item described in paragraph 100) should be amortised to the statement of profit and loss. Amortisation may begin as soon as an adjustment exists and should begin no later than when the hedged item ceases to be adjusted for changes in its fair value attributable to the risk being hedged. The adjustment is based on a recalculated effective interest rate at the date amortisation begins.

However, if, in the case of a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities (and only in such a hedge), amortising using a recalculated effective interest rate is not practicable, the adjustment should be amortised using a straight-line method. The adjustment should be amortised fully by maturity of the financial instrument or, in the case of a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk, by expiry of the relevant repricing time period.

104. When an unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in the statement of profit and loss (see paragraph 99(b)). The changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument are also recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

105. When an entity enters into a firm commitment to acquire an asset or assume a liability that is a hedged item in a fair value hedge, the initial carrying amount of the asset or liability that results from the entity meeting the firm commitment is adjusted to include the cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk that was recognised in the balance sheet.

Cash Flow Hedges

106. If a cash flow hedge meets the conditions in paragraph 98 during the period, it should be accounted for as follows:

(a) the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (see paragraph 98) should be recognised directly in an appropriate equity account, say, Hedging Reserve Account; and

(b) the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an ineffective hedge should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

107. More specifically, a cash flow hedge is accounted for as follows:

(a) the appropriate equity account (Hedging Reserve Account) associated with the hedged item is adjusted to the lesser of the following (in absolute amounts):

(i) the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument from inception of the hedge; and

(ii) the cumulative change in fair value (present value) of the expected future cash flows on the hedged item from inception of the hedge;

(b) any remaining gain or loss on the hedging instrument or designated component of it (that is not an effective hedge) is recognised in the statement of profit and loss; and

(c) if an entity?s documented risk management strategy for a particular hedging relationship excludes from the assessment of hedge effectiveness a specific component of the gain or loss or related cash flows on the hedging instrument (see paragraphs 83, 84 and 98(a)), that excluded component of gain or loss is recognised in accordance with paragraph 61.

108. If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a financial asset or a financial liability, the associated gains or losses that were recognised directly in the appropriate equity account in accordance with paragraph 106 should be reclassified into, i.e., recognised in, the statement of profit and loss in the same period or periods during which the asset acquired or liability assumed affects profit or loss (such as in the periods that interest income or interest expense is recognised). However, if an entity expects that all or a portion of a loss recognised directly in the equity account will not be recovered in one or more future periods, it should reclassify into, i.e., recognise in, the statement of profit and loss the amount that is not expected to be recovered.

109. If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a nonfinancial asset or a non-financial liability, or a forecast transaction for a non-financial asset or non-financial liability becomes a firm commitment for which fair value hedge accounting is applied, then the entity should adopt (a) or (b) below:

(a) It reclassifies, i.e., recognises, the associated gains and losses that were recognised directly in the appropriate equity account in accordance with paragraph 106 into the statement of profit and loss in the same period or periods during which the asset acquired or liability assumed affects profit or loss (such as in the periods that depreciation expense or cost of sales is recognised). However, if an entity expects that all or a portion of a loss recognised directly in the equity account will not be recovered in one or more future periods, it should reclassify into, i.e., recognise in, the statement of profit and loss the amount that is not expected to be recovered.

(b) It removes the associated gains and losses that were recognised directly in the equity account in accordance with paragraph 106, and includes them in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or liability.

110. An entity should adopt either (a) or (b) in paragraph 109 as its accounting policy and should apply it consistently to all hedges to which paragraph 109 relates.

111. For cash flow hedges other than those covered by paragraphs 108 and 109, amounts that had been recognised directly in the equity account should be reclassified into, i.e., recognised in, the statement of profit and loss in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecast transaction affects profit or loss (for example, when a forecast sale occurs).

112. In any of the following circumstances an entity should discontinue prospectively the hedge accounting specified in paragraphs 106-111:

(a) The hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised (for this purpose, the replacement or rollover of a hedging instrument into another hedging instrument is not an expiration or termination if such replacement or rollover is part of the entity?s documented hedging strategy). In this case, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that remains recognised directly in the appropriate equity account from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 106(a)) should remain separately recognised in the equity account until the forecast transaction occurs. When the transaction occurs, paragraph 108, 109 or 111 applies, as the case may be.

(b) The hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting in paragraph 98.

In this case, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that remains recognised directly in the equity account from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 106(a)) should remain so separately recognised in the equity account until the forecast transaction occurs. When the transaction occurs, paragraph 108, 109 or 111 applies, as the case may be.

(c) The forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, in which case any related cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that remains recognised directly in the equity account from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 106(a)) should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss. A forecast transaction that is no longer highly probable (see paragraph 98(c)) may still be expected to occur.

(d) The entity revokes the designation. For hedges of a forecast transaction, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that remains recognised directly in the equity account from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 106(a)) should remain separately recognised in the equity account until the forecast transaction occurs or is no longer expected to occur. When the transaction occurs, paragraph 108, 109 or 111 applies, as the case may be.

If the transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised directly in the equity account should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Hedges of a Net Investment

113. Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation (see AS 11), including a hedge of a monetary item that is accounted for as part of the net investment (see AS 11), should be accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges:

(a) the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (see paragraph 98) should be recognised directly in the appropriate equity account; and

(b) the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an ineffective hedge should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss. The gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge that has been recognised directly in the equity account should be recognised in the statement of profit and loss on disposal of the foreign operation.

Transitional Provisions

Hedge Accounting

117. As required by the Standard, on the date of this Standard becoming mandatory, an entity should:

(a) measure all derivatives at fair value; and

(b) eliminate all deferred losses and gains, if any, arising on derivatives that under the previous accounting policy of the entity were reported as assets or liabilities. Any resulting gain or loss (as adjusted by any related tax expense/ benefit) should be adjusted against opening balance of revenue reserves and surplus.

118. On the date of this Standard becoming mandatory, an entity should not reflect in its financial statements a hedging relationship of a type that does not qualify for hedge accounting under this Standard (for example, hedging relationships where the hedging instrument is a cash instrument or written option; where the hedged item is a net position; or where the hedge covers interest risk in a held-to-maturity investment). However, if an entity designated a net position as a hedged item under its previous accounting policy, it may designate an individual item within that net position as a hedged item under Accounting Standards, provided that it does so on the date of this Standard becoming mandatory.

119. If, before the date of this Standard becoming mandatory, an entity had designated a transaction as a hedge but the hedge does not meet the conditions for hedge accounting in this Standard, the entity should apply paragraphs 102 and 112 to discontinue hedge accounting. Transactions entered into before the date of this Standard becoming mandatory should not be retrospectively designated as hedges.

Hedging (paragraphs 80-113)

Hedging Instruments (paragraphs 81-86)

Qualifying Instruments (paragraphs 81 and 82)

A114. The potential loss on an option that an entity writes could be significantly greater than the potential gain in value of a related hedged item. In other words, a written option is not effective in reducing the profit or loss exposure of a hedged item. Therefore, a written option does not qualify as a hedging instrument unless it is designated as an offset to a purchased option, including one that is embedded in another financial instrument (for example, a written call option used to hedge a callable liability). In contrast, a purchased option has potential gains equal to or greater than losses and therefore has the potential to reduce profit or loss exposure from changes in fair values or cash flows. Accordingly, it can qualify as a hedging instrument.

A115. A held-to-maturity investment carried at amortised cost may be designated as a hedging instrument in a hedge of foreign currency risk.

A116. An investment in an unquoted equity instrument that is not carried at fair value because its fair value cannot be reliably measured or a derivative that is linked to and must be settled by delivery of such an unquoted equity instrument (see paragraphs 51(c) and 52) cannot be designated as a hedging instrument.

A117. An entity?s own equity instruments are not financial assets or financial liabilities of the entity and therefore cannot be designated as hedging instruments.

Hedged Items (paragraphs 87-94)

Qualifying Items (paragraphs 87-89)

A118. A firm commitment to acquire a business in a business combination cannot be a hedged item, except for foreign exchange risk, because the other risks being hedged cannot be specifically identified and measured. These other risks are general business risks.

A119. An investment accounted for using the equity method of accounting or using the proportionate consolidation cannot be a hedged item in a fair value hedge because the equity method and the proportionate consolidation recognises in the consolidated statement of profit and loss the investor?s share of the associate?s profit or loss and the venturer?s share of the jointly controlled entity?s profit or loss, respectively, rather than changes in the investment?s fair value. For a similar reason, an investment in a consolidated subsidiary cannot be a hedged item in a fair value hedge because consolidation recognises in the consolidated statement of profit and loss the subsidiary?s profit or loss, rather than changes in the investment?s fair value. A hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation is different because it is a hedge of the foreign currency exposure, not a fair value hedge of the change in the value of the investment.

A120. Paragraph 89 states that in consolidated financial statements the foreign currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction may qualify as a hedged item in a cash flow hedge, provided the transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will affect consolidated profit or loss. For this purpose an entity can be a parent, subsidiary, associate, joint venture or branch. If the foreign currency risk of a forecast intragroup transaction does not affect consolidated profit or loss, the intragroup transaction cannot qualify as a hedged item. This is usually the case for royalty payments, interest payments or management charges between members of the same group unless there is a related external transaction. However, when the foreign currency risk of a forecast intragroup transaction will affect consolidated profit or loss, the intragroup transaction can qualify as a hedged item. An example is forecast sales or purchases of inventories between members of the same group if there is an onward sale of the inventory to a party external to the group. Similarly, a forecast intragroup sale of plant and equipment from the group entity that manufactured it to a group entity that will use the plant and equipment in its operations may affect consolidated profit or loss. This could occur, for example, because the plant and equipment will be depreciated by the purchasing entity and the amount initially recognised for the plant and equipment may change if the forecast intragroup transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the purchasing entity.

A121. If a hedge of a forecast intragroup transaction qualifies for hedge accounting, any gain or loss that is recognised directly in the appropriate equity account in accordance with paragraph 106(a) should be reclassified into, i.e., recognised in, the statement of profit and loss in the same period or periods during which the foreign currency risk of the hedged transaction affects consolidated profit or loss.

Designation of Financial Items as Hedged Items (paragraphs 90 and 91)

A122. If a portion of the cash flows of a financial asset or financial liability is designated as the hedged item, that designated portion must be less than the total cash flows of the asset or liability. For example, in the case of a liability whose effective interest rate is below LIBOR, an entity cannot designate (a) a portion of the liability equal to the principal amount plus interest at LIBOR and (b) a negative residual portion. However, the entity may designate all of the cash flows of the entire financial asset or financial liability as the hedged item and hedge them for only one particular risk (e.g., only for changes that are attributable to changes in LIBOR). For example, in the case of a financial liability whose effective interest rate is 100 basis points below LIBOR, an entity can designate as the hedged item the entire liability (i.e., principal plus interest at LIBOR minus 100 basis points) and hedge the change in the fair value or cash flows of that entire liability that is attributable to changes in LIBOR. The entity may also choose a hedge ratio of other than one to one in order to improve the effectiveness of the hedge as described in paragraph A124.

A123. In addition, if a fixed rate financial instrument is hedged some time after its origination and interest rates have changed in the meantime, the entity can designate a portion equal to a benchmark rate that is higher than the contractual rate paid on the item. The entity can do so provided that the benchmark rate is less than the effective interest rate calculated on the assumption that the entity had purchased the instrument on the day it first designates the hedged item. For example, assume an entity originates a fixed rate financial asset of Rs. 100 that has an effective interest rate of 6 per cent at a time when LIBOR is 4 per cent. It begins to hedge that asset some time later when LIBOR has increased to 8 per cent and the fair value of the asset has decreased to Rs. 90. The entity calculates that if it had purchased the asset on the date it first designates it as the hedged item for its then fair value of Rs. 90, the effective yield would have been 9.5 per cent. Because LIBOR is less than this effective yield, the entity can designate a LIBOR portion of 8 per cent that consists partly of the contractual interest cash flows and partly of the difference between the current fair value (i.e., Rs. 90) and the amount repayable on maturity (i.e., Rs. 100).

Designation of Non-Financial Items as Hedged Items (paragraph 92)

A124. Changes in the price of an ingredient or component of a non-financial asset or nonfinancial liability generally do not have a predictable, separately measurable effect on the price of the item that is comparable to the effect of, say, a change in market interest rates on the price of a bond. Thus, a non-financial asset or non-financial liability is a hedged item only in its entirety or for foreign exchange risk. If there is a difference between the terms of the hedging instrument and the hedged item (such as for a hedge of the forecast purchase of Brazilian coffee using a forward contract to purchase Colombian coffee on otherwise similar terms), the hedging relationship nonetheless can qualify as a hedge relationship provided all the conditions in paragraph 98 are met, including that the hedge is expected to be highly effective. For this purpose, the amount of the hedging instrument may be greater or less than that of the hedged item if this improves the effectiveness of the hedging relationship. For example, a regression

analysis could be performed to establish a statistical relationship between the hedged item (e.g., a transaction in Brazilian coffee) and the hedging instrument (e.g., a transaction in Colombian coffee). If there is a valid statistical relationship between the two variables (i.e., between the unit prices of Brazilian coffee and Colombian coffee), the slope of the regression line can be used to establish the hedge ratio that will maximise expected effectiveness. For example, if the slope of the regression line is 1.02, a hedge ratio based on 0.98 quantities of hedged items to 1.00 quantities of the hedging instrument maximises expected effectiveness. However, the hedging relationship may result in ineffectiveness that is recognised in the statement of profit and loss during the term of the hedging relationship.

Designation of Groups of Items as Hedged Items (paragraphs 93 and 94)

A125. A hedge of an overall net position (e.g., the net of all fixed rate assets and fixed rate liabilities with similar maturities), rather than of a specific hedged item, does not qualify for hedge accounting. However, almost the same effect on profit or loss of hedge accounting for this type of hedging relationship can be achieved by designating as the hedged item part of the underlying items. For example, if a bank has Rs. 100 of assets and Rs. 90 of liabilities with risks and terms of a similar nature and hedges the net Rs. 10 exposure, it can designate as the hedged item Rs. 10 of those assets. This designation can be used if such assets and liabilities are fixed rate instruments, in which case it is a fair value hedge, or if they are variable rate instruments, in which case it is a cash flow hedge. Similarly, if an entity has a firm commitment to make a purchase in a foreign currency of Rs. 100 and a firm commitment to make a sale in the foreign currency of Rs. 90, it can hedge the net amount of Rs. 10 by acquiring a derivative and designating it as a hedging instrument associated with Rs. 10 of the firm purchase commitment of Rs. 100.

Hedge Accounting (paragraphs 95-113)

A126. An example of a fair value hedge is a hedge of exposure to changes in the fair value of a fixed rate debt instrument as a result of changes in interest rates. Such a hedge could be entered into by the issuer or by the holder.

A127. An example of a cash flow hedge is the use of a swap to change floating rate debt to fixed rate debt (i.e., a hedge of a future transaction where the future cash flows being hedged are the future interest payments).

A128. A hedge of a firm commitment (e.g., a hedge of the change in fuel price relating to an unrecognised contractual commitment by an electric utility to purchase fuel at a fixed price) is a hedge of an exposure to a change in fair value. Accordingly, such a hedge is a fair value hedge.

However, under paragraph 97 a hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment could alternatively be accounted for as a cash flow hedge.

Assessing Hedge Effectiveness

A129. A hedge is regarded as highly effective only if both of the following conditions are met:

(a) At the inception of the hedge and in subsequent periods, the hedge is expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk during the period for which the hedge is designated. Such an expectation can be demonstrated in various ways, including a comparison of past changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk with past changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedging instrument, or by demonstrating a high statistical correlation between the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item and those of the hedging instrument. The entity may choose a hedge ratio of other than one to one in order to improve the effectiveness of the hedge as described in paragraph A124.

(b) The actual results of the hedge are within a range of 80-125 per cent. For example, if actual results are such that the loss on the hedging instrument is Rs. 120 and the gain on the cash instrument is Rs. 100, offset can be measured by 120/ 100, which is 120 per cent, or by 100 / 120, which is 83 per cent. In this example, assuming the hedge meets the condition in (a), the entity would conclude that the hedge has been highly effective.

A130. Effectiveness is assessed, at a minimum, at the time an entity prepares its annual or interim financial statements.

A131. This Standard does not specify a single method for assessing hedge effectiveness. The method an entity adopts for assessing hedge effectiveness depends on its risk management strategy. For example, if the entity?s risk management strategy is to adjust the amount of the hedging instrument periodically to reflect changes in the hedged position, the entity needs to demonstrate that the hedge is expected to be highly effective only for the period until the amount of the hedging instrument is next adjusted. In some cases, an entity adopts different methods for different types of hedges. An entity?s documentation of its hedging strategy includes its procedures for assessing effectiveness. Those procedures state whether the assessment includes all of the gain or loss on a hedging instrument or whether the instrument?s time value is excluded.

A132. If an entity hedges less than 100 per cent of the exposure on an item, such as 85 per cent, it should designate the hedged item as being 85 per cent of the exposure and should measure ineffectiveness based on the change in that designated 85 per cent exposure. However, when hedging the designated 85 per cent exposure, the entity may use a hedge ratio of other than one to one if that improves the expected effectiveness of the hedge, as explained in paragraph A124.

A133. If the principal terms of the hedging instrument and of the hedged asset, liability, firm commitment or highly probable forecast transaction are the same, the changes in fair value and cash flows attributable to the risk being hedged may be likely to offset each other fully, both when the hedge is entered into and afterwards. For example, an interest rate swap is likely to be an effective hedge if the notional and principal amounts, term, repricing dates, dates of interest and principal receipts and payments, and basis for measuring interest rates are the same for the hedging instrument and the hedged item.

In addition, a hedge of a highly probable forecast purchase of a commodity with a forward contract is likely to be highly effective if:

(a) the forward contract is for the purchase of the same quantity of the same commodity at the same time and location as the hedged forecast purchase;

(b) the fair value of the forward contract at inception is zero; and

(c) either the change in the discount or premium on the forward contract is excluded from the assessment of effectiveness and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss or the change in expected cash flows on the highly probable forecast transaction is based on the forward price for the commodity.

A134. Sometimes the hedging instrument offsets only part of the hedged risk. For example, a hedge would not be fully effective if the hedging instrument and hedged item are denominated in different currencies that do not move in tandem. Also, a hedge of interest rate risk using a derivative would not be fully effective if part of the change in the fair value of the derivative is attributable to the counterparty?s credit risk.

A135. To qualify for hedge accounting, the hedge must relate to a specific identified and designated risk, and not merely to the entity?s general business risks, and must ultimately affect the entity?s profit or loss. A hedge of the risk of obsolescence of a physical asset or the risk of expropriation of property by a government is not eligible for hedge accounting; effectiveness cannot be measured because those risks are not measurable reliably.

A136. In the case of interest rate risk, hedge effectiveness may be assessed by preparing a maturity schedule for financial assets and financial liabilities that shows the net interest rate exposure for each time period, provided that the net exposure is associated with a specific asset or liability (or a specific group of assets or liabilities or a specific portion of them) giving rise to the net exposure, and hedge effectiveness is assessed against that asset or liability.

A137. In assessing the effectiveness of a hedge, an entity generally considers the time value of money. The fixed interest rate on a hedged item need not exactly match the fixed interest rate on a swap designated as a fair value hedge. Nor does the variable interest rate on an interest-bearing asset or liability need to be the same as the variable interest rate on a swap designated as a cash flow hedge. A swap?s fair value derives from its net settlements. The fixed and variable rates on a swap can be changed without affecting the net settlement if both are changed by the same amount.

A138. If an entity does not meet hedge effectiveness criteria, the entity discontinues hedge accounting from the last date on which compliance with hedge effectiveness was demonstrated. However, if the entity identifies the event or change in circumstances that caused the hedging relationship to fail the effectiveness criteria, and demonstrates that the hedge was effective before the event or change in circumstances occurred, the entity discontinues hedge accounting from the date of the event or change in circumstances.

Fair Value Hedge Accounting for a Portfolio Hedge of Interest Rate Risk

A139. For a fair value hedge of interest rate risk associated with a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities, an entity would meet the requirements of this Standard if it complies with the procedures set out in (a)-(i) and paragraphs A140-A157 below.

(a) As part of its risk management process the entity identifies a portfolio of items whose interest rate risk it wishes to hedge. The portfolio may comprise only assets, only liabilities or both assets and liabilities. The entity may identify two or more portfolios (e.g., the entity may group its available-for-sale assets into a separate portfolio), in which case it applies the guidance below to each portfolio separately.

(b) The entity analyses the portfolio into repricing time periods based on expected, rather than contractual, repricing dates. The analysis into repricing time periods may be performed in various ways including scheduling cash flows into the periods in which they are expected to occur, or scheduling notional principal amounts into all periods until repricing is expected to occur.

(c) On the basis of this analysis, the entity decides the amount it wishes to hedge. The entity designates as the hedged item an amount of assets or liabilities (but not a net amount) from the identified portfolio equal to the amount it wishes to designate as being hedged. This amount also determines the percentage measure that is used for testing effectiveness in accordance with paragraph A151(b).

(d) The entity designates the interest rate risk it is hedging. This risk could be a portion of the interest rate risk in each of the items in the hedged position, such as a benchmark interest rate (e.g., LIBOR).

(e) The entity designates one or more hedging instruments for each repricing time period.

(f) Using the designations made in (c)-(e) above, the entity assesses at inception and in subsequent periods, whether the hedge is expected to be highly effective during the period for which the hedge is designated.

(g) Periodically, the entity measures the change in the fair value of the hedged item (as designated in (c)) that is attributable to the hedged risk (as designated in (d)), on the basis of the expected repricing dates determined in (b). Provided that the hedge is determined actually to have been highly effective when assessed using the entity?s documented method of assessing effectiveness, the entity recognises the change in fair value of the hedged item as a gain or loss in the statement of profit and loss and in one of two line items in the balance sheet as described in paragraph 100. The change in fair value need not be allocated to individual assets or liabilities.

(h) The entity measures the change in fair value of the hedging instrument(s) (as designated in (e)) and recognises it as a gain or loss in the statement of profit and loss. The fair value of the hedging instrument(s) is recognised as an asset or liability in the balance sheet.

(i) Any ineffectiveness31 will be recognised in the statement of profit and loss as the difference between the change in fair value referred to in (g) and that referred to in (h).

A140. This approach is described in more detail below. The approach is applied only to a fair value hedge of the interest rate risk associated with a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities.

A141. The portfolio identified in paragraph A139(a) could contain assets and liabilities. Alternatively, it could be a portfolio containing only assets, or only liabilities. The portfolio is used to determine the amount of the assets or liabilities the entity wishes to hedge. However, the portfolio is not itself designated as the hedged item.

A142. In applying paragraph A139(b), the entity determines the expected repricing date of an item as the earlier of the dates when that item is expected to mature or to reprice to market rates. The expected repricing dates are estimated at the inception of the hedge and throughout the term of the hedge, based on historical experience and other available information, including information and expectations regarding prepayment rates, interest rates and the interaction between them. Entities that have no entity-specific experience or insufficient experience use peer group experience for comparable financial instruments. These estimates are reviewed periodically and updated in the light of experience. In the case of a fixed rate item that is prepayable, the expected repricing date is the date on which the item is expected to prepay unless it reprices to market rates on an earlier date. For a group of similar items, the analysis into time periods based on expected repricing dates may take the form of allocating a percentage of the group, rather than individual items, to each time period. An entity may apply other methodologies for such allocation purposes. For example, it may use a prepayment rate multiplier for allocating amortising loans to time periods based on expected repricing dates.

However, the methodology for such an allocation should be in accordance with the entity?s risk management procedures and objectives.

A143. As an example of the designation set out in paragraph A139(c), if in a particular repricing time period an entity estimates that it has fixed rate assets of Rs. 100 and fixed rate liabilities of 31 The same materiality considerations apply in this context as apply throughout Accounting Standards. Rs. 80 and decides to hedge all of the net position of Rs. 20, it designates as the hedged item assets in the amount of Rs. 20 (a portion of the assets)32. The designation is expressed as an ?amount of a currency? (e.g., an amount of dollars, euro, pounds or rand) rather than as individual assets. It follows that all of the assets (or liabilities) from which the hedged amount is drawn?i.e., all of the Rs. 100 of assets in the above example?must be:

(a) items whose fair value changes in response to changes in the interest rate being hedged; and

(b) items that could have qualified for fair value hedge accounting if they had been designated as hedged individually. In particular, because the Standard33 specifies that the fair value of a financial liability with a demand feature (such as demand deposits and some types of time deposits) is not less than the amount payable on demand, discounted from the first date that the amount could be required to be paid, such an item cannot qualify for fair value hedge accounting for any time period beyond the shortest period in which the holder can demand payment. In the above example, the hedged position is an amount of assets. Hence, such liabilities are not a part of the designated hedged item, but are used by the entity to determine the amount of the asset that is designated as being hedged. If the position the entity wished to hedge was an amount of liabilities, the amount representing the designated hedged item must be drawn from fixed rate liabilities other than liabilities that the entity can be required to repay in an earlier time period, and the percentage measure used for assessing hedge effectiveness in accordance with paragraph A151(b) would be calculated as a percentage of these other liabilities. For example, assume that an entity estimates that in a particular repricing time period it has fixed rate liabilities of Rs. 100, comprising Rs. 40 of demand deposits and Rs. 60 of liabilities with no demand feature, and Rs. 70 of fixed rate assets. If the entity decides to hedge all of the net position of Rs. 30, it designates as the hedged item liabilities of Rs. 30 or 50 per cent34 of the liabilities with no demand feature.

A144. The entity also complies with the other designation and documentation requirements set out in paragraph 98(a). For a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk, this designation and documentation specifies the entity?s policy for all of the variables that are used to identify the amount that is hedged and how effectiveness is measured, including the following:

(a) which assets and liabilities are to be included in the portfolio hedge and the basis to be used for removing them from the portfolio. 32 The Standard permits an entity to designate any amount of the available qualifying assets or liabilities, i.e., in this example any amount of assets between Rs. 0 and Rs. 100. 33 See Paragraph 52. 34 Rs. 30 / (Rs. 100 ? Rs. 40) = 50 per cent

(b) how the entity estimates repricing dates, including what interest rate assumptions underlie estimates of prepayment rates and the basis for changing those estimates. The same method is used for both the initial estimates made at the time an asset or liability is included in the hedged portfolio and for any later revisions to those estimates.

(c) the number and duration of repricing time periods.

(d) how often the entity will test effectiveness and which of the two methods in paragraph A151 it will use.

(e) the methodology used by the entity to determine the amount of assets or liabilitiesn that are designated as the hedged item and, accordingly, the percentage measure used when the entity tests effectiveness using the method described in paragraph A151(b).

(f) when the entity tests effectiveness using the method described in paragraph A151(b), whether the entity will test effectiveness for each repricing time period individually, for all time periods in aggregate, or by using some combination of the two.

The policies specified in designating and documenting the hedging relationship should be in accordance with the entity?s risk management procedures and objectives. Changes in policies should not be made arbitrarily. They should be justified on the basis of changes in market conditions and other factors and be founded on and consistent with the entity?s risk management procedures and objectives.

A145. The hedging instrument referred to in paragraph A139(e) may be a single derivative or a portfolio of derivatives all of which contain exposure to the hedged interest rate risk designated in paragraph A139(d) (e.g., a portfolio of interest rate swaps all of which contain exposure to LIBOR). Such a portfolio of derivatives may contain offsetting risk positions. However, it may not include written options or net written options, because the Standard35 does not permit such options to be designated as hedging instruments (except when a written option is designated as an offset to a purchased option). If the hedging instrument hedges the amount designated in paragraph A139(c) for more than one repricing time period, it is allocated to all of the time periods that it hedges. However, the whole of the hedging instrument must be allocated to those repricing time periods because the Standard36 does not permit a hedging relationship to be designated for only a portion of the time period during which a hedging instrument remains outstanding.

A146. When the entity measures the change in the fair value of a prepayable item in accordance with paragraph A139(g), a change in interest rates affects the fair value of the prepayable item in 35 See paragraphs 86 and A114 36 See paragraph 84 two ways: it affects the fair value of the contractual cash flows and the fair value of the prepayment option that is contained in a prepayable item. Paragraph 90 of the Standard permits an entity to designate a portion of a financial asset or financial liability, sharing a common risk exposure, as the hedged item, provided effectiveness can be measured. For prepayable items, paragraph 91 permits this to be achieved by designating the hedged item in terms of the change in the fair value that is attributable to changes in the designated interest rate on the basis of expected, rather than contractual, repricing dates. However, the effect that changes in the hedged interest rate have on those expected repricing dates should be included when determining the change in the fair value of the hedged item. Consequently, if the expected repricing dates are revised (e.g., to reflect a change in expected prepayments), or if actual repricing dates differ from those expected, ineffectiveness will arise as described in paragraph A151. Conversely, changes in expected repricing dates that (a) clearly arise from factors other than changes in the hedged interest rate, (b) are uncorrelated with changes in the hedged interest rate and (c) can be reliably separated from changes that are attributable to the hedged interest rate (e.g., changes in prepayment rates clearly arising from a change in demographic factors or tax regulations rather than changes in interest rate) are excluded when determining the change in the fair value of the hedged item, because they are not attributable to the hedged risk. If there is uncertainty about the factor that gave rise to the change in expected repricing dates or the entity is not able to separate reliably the changes that arise from the hedged interest rate from those that arise from other factors, the change is assumed to arise from changes in the hedged interest rate.

A147. The Standard does not specify the techniques used to determine the amount referred to in paragraph A139(g), namely the change in the fair value of the hedged item that is attributable to the hedged risk. If statistical or other estimation techniques are used for such measurement, management must expect the result to approximate closely that which would have been obtained from measurement of all the individual assets or liabilities that constitute the hedged item. It is not appropriate to assume that changes in the fair value of the hedged item equal changes in the value of the hedging instrument.

A148. Paragraph 100 requires that if the hedged item for a particular repricing time period is an asset, the change in its value is presented in a separate line item within assets. Conversely, if the hedged item for a particular repricing time period is a liability, the change in its value is presented in a separate line item within liabilities. These are the separate line items referred to in paragraph A139(g). Specific allocation to individual assets (or liabilities) is not required.

A149. Paragraph A139(i) notes that ineffectiveness arises to the extent that the change in the fair value of the hedged item that is attributable to the hedged risk differs from the change in the fair value of the hedging derivative. Such a difference may arise for a number of reasons, including:

(a) actual repricing dates being different from those expected, or expected repricing dates being revised;

(b) items in the hedged portfolio becoming impaired or being derecognised;

(c) the payment dates of the hedging instrument and the hedged item being different; and

(d) other causes (e.g., when a few of the hedged items bear interest at a rate below the benchmark rate for which they are designated as being hedged, and the resulting ineffectiveness is not so great that the portfolio as a whole fails to qualify for hedge accounting). Such ineffectiveness37 should be identified and recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

A150. Generally, the effectiveness of the hedge will be improved:

(a) if the entity schedules items with different prepayment characteristics in a way that takes account of the differences in prepayment behaviour.

(b) when the number of items in the portfolio is larger. When only a few items are contained in the portfolio, relatively high ineffectiveness is likely if one of the items prepays earlier or later than expected. Conversely, when the portfolio contains many items, the prepayment behaviour can be predicted more accurately.

(c) when the repricing time periods used are narrower (e.g., 1-month as opposed to 3-month repricing time periods). Narrower repricing time periods reduces the effect of any mismatch between the repricing and payment dates (within the repricing time period) of the hedged item and those of the hedging instrument.

(d) the greater the frequency with which the amount of the hedging instrument is adjusted to reflect changes in the hedged item (e.g., because of changes in prepayment expectations).

A151. An entity tests effectiveness periodically. If estimates of repricing dates change between one date on which an entity assesses effectiveness and the next, it should calculate the amount of effectiveness either:

(a) as the difference between the change in the fair value of the hedging instrument (see paragraph A139(h)) and the change in the value of the entire hedged item that is attributable to changes in the hedged interest rate (including the effect that changes in the hedged interest rate have on the fair value of any embedded prepayment option); or

(b) using the following approximation. The entity: 37 The same materiality considerations apply in this context as apply throughout Accounting Standards.

(i) calculates the percentage of the assets (or liabilities) in each repricing time period that was hedged, on the basis of the estimated repricing dates at the last date it tested effectiveness.

(ii) applies this percentage to its revised estimate of the amount in that repricing time period to calculate the amount of the hedged item based on its revised estimate.

(iii) calculates the change in the fair value of its revised estimate of the hedged item that is attributable to the hedged risk and presents it as set out in paragraph A139(g).

(iv) recognises ineffectiveness equal to the difference between the amount determined in (iii) and the change in the fair value of the hedging instrument (see paragraph A139(h)).

A152. When measuring effectiveness, the entity distinguishes revisions to the estimated repricing dates of existing assets (or liabilities) from the origination of new assets (or liabilities), with only the former giving rise to ineffectiveness. All revisions to estimated repricing dates (other than those excluded in accordance with paragraph A146), including any reallocation of existing items between time periods, are included when revising the estimated amount in a time period in accordance with paragraph A151(b)(ii) and hence when measuring effectiveness. Once ineffectiveness has been recognised as set out above, the entity establishes a new estimate of the total assets (or liabilities) in each repricing time period, including new assets (or liabilities) that have been originated since it last tested effectiveness, and designates a new amount as the hedged item and a new percentage as the hedged percentage. The procedures set out in paragraph A151(b) are then repeated at the next date it tests effectiveness.

A153. Items that were originally scheduled into a repricing time period may be derecognised because of earlier than expected prepayment or write offs caused by impairment or sale. When this occurs, the amount of change in fair value included in the separate line item referred to in paragraph A139(g) that relates to the derecognised item is removed from the balance sheet, and included in the gain or loss that arises on derecognition of the item. For this purpose, it is necessary to know the repricing time period(s) into which the derecognised item was scheduled, because this determines the repricing time period(s) from which to remove it and hence the amount to remove from the separate line item referred to in paragraph A139(g). When an item is derecognised, if it can be determined in which time period it was included, it is removed from that time period. If not, it is removed from the earliest time period if the derecognition resulted from higher than expected prepayments, or allocated to all time periods containing the derecognised item on a systematic and rational basis if the item was sold or became impaired.

A154. In addition, any amount relating to a particular time period that has not been derecognised when the time period expires is recognised in the statement of profit and loss at that time (see paragraph 100). For example, assume an entity schedules items into three repricing time periods. At the previous redesignation, the change in fair value reported in the single line item on the balance sheet was an asset of Rs. 25. That amount represents amounts attributable to periods 1, 2 and 3 of Rs. 7, Rs. 8 and Rs. 10, respectively. At the next redesignation, the assets attributable to period 1 have been either realised or rescheduled into other periods. Therefore, Rs. 7 is derecognised from the balance sheet and recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Rs. 8 and Rs. 10 are now attributable to periods 1 and 2, respectively. These remaining periods are then adjusted, as necessary, for changes in fair value as described in paragraph A139(g).




Category Accounts, Other Articles by - CA Lalit Mohan Agarwal 



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