Shri Kapil Sibal releases Elementary Education in India- progress report towards UEE
ENROLMENT AT PRIMARY AND UPPER PRIMARY LEVEL INCREASES TO 134.38 MILLION IN 2008-09 FROM 101.16 MILLION IN 2002-03
Shri Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human Resource Development, released, here today, the ‘DISE Flash Statistics-2008-09’ which is a progress report towards Universalisation of Elementary Education in India. This report has been prepared by the National University of Educational Planning and Administration(NEUPA). NUEPA has created a comprehensive database on elementary education in India known as District Information System for Education (DISE). The project covers both primary and upper primary schools/sections of all the districts of the country. The MIS Units are now operational both at the district and state levels and are providing vital information for policy formulation and preparation of district elementary education plans. DISE has drastically reduced the time-lag in the availability of educational statistics which is now down from 7-8 years to less than a year at the national level and only a few months at the district and state levels.
To further improve the quality of data, it has now been made mandatory for all the states to check the data on five percent random sample basis through an independent agency each year. States are advised to initiate corrective measures in the light of the findings of sample checking of data.
DISE 2008-09: School-Based Indicators
With the improved coverage, the number of schools/sections imparting elementary education dealt with under DISE increased many-fold. From 8,53,601 schools in 2002-03, their number has increased to 11,96,663 schools in 2006-07 and further to 12,50,775 schools in 2007-08. In the current year, 2008-09, as many as 12,85,576 schools imparting elementary education across 633 districts of the country are covered under DISE.
Of the total schools, about 87.30 percent schools are located in the rural areas. During the same period, the number of primary schools increased from 6,01,866 to 8,09,108. Category-wise distribution of schools reveals that majority of the schools (62.94 percent) are independent primary schools. The increase in the number of schools is also reflected in the ratio of primary to upper primary schools/sections which clearly shows the impact of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan under which a large number of schools have been opened in the recent past. This ratio for the year 2008-09 is one upper primary school/section for every set of 2.27 primary schools/sections compared to 2.45 in 2006-07 and 2.42 schools/sections in 2007-08. Most of the states have the ratio equivalent to almost two, all of which suggests that by and large schooling facilities have been created and are available across the country. Despite significant improvement in the ratio, there are a few states, such as Arunachal Pradesh (4.16) and West Bengal (5.48), where the ratio still needs to be improved significantly.
72,886 and 1,77,034 schools covered in 2008-09 were respectively being managed by the Private Aided and Private Unaided managements. DISE data also suggests that majority of the private schools are un-aided schools (70.84 percent). The percentage of government and government aided schools is as high as 86.19 which show that about ninety out of every hundred schools imparting elementary education in the country are funded by the Government.
DISE 2008-09: Facility Indicators
Like number of schools, instructional rooms and ratio of primary to upper primary sections/schools, facilities in schools have also improved significantly which is true for physical, ancillary and teaching-learning facilities. Availability of basic facilities in schools not only attracts more children to schools but also help in improving retention rate.
The preliminary analysis of a select few indicators suggests significant improvement in all facility indicators. As of 30th September 2008, as many as 1,26,335 primary and 48,994 upper primary schools/sections have been opened under the Government managements since the inception of SSA. 2,22,534 schools have been opened which is about 17.32 percent of the total schools in 2008-09 in the country and more than 90 percent of these new schools have school buildingS. Jharkhand has opened as many as 16,102 primary schools/sections which is the highest among all the States and UTs of the country. On the other hand, Uttar Pradesh opened the highest number of Upper Primary schools/sections (21,042 schools/sections). Opening of new schools is also reflected in the ratio of Primary to Upper Primary schools/sections which stood at 2.27 in 2008-09 compared to 2.42 Primary schools/sections per Upper Primary school/section.The improvement in average number of classrooms is also reflected in the improvement in student-classroom ratio which has improved to 33 students per classroom in 2008-09 from 35 students in the previous year.
About 88 percent of the 1.29 million schools that impart elementary education in the country now have drinking water facility in school. All the schools in Chandigarh, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep, and Tamil Nadu have been provided with the drinking water facility in the school.
About 67 percent schools in the country now have access to common toilets in 2008-09 compared to only 62.67 percent in the previous year all which suggests that the facility was extended to a large number of additional schools during the intermediary years i.e. 2007-08 to 2008-09. More than 50 percent of total 1.29 million schools now have girl’s toilet compared to 50.55 percent in the previous year i.e. 2007-08.
14 percent schools have computer in schools with percentage of such schools as high as 85.88 percent in Chandigarh, 85.84 percent in Delhi, 79.93 percent in Kerala and 89.74 percent in Lakshadweep compared to only 0.68 percent in Bihar and 3.59 percent such schools in Uttar Pradesh. On the other hand, it has been observed that 40.39 percent schools in 2008-09 have ramp in school and 43.33 percent Government and Aided schools, a kitchen-shed in the school premises.
DISE 2008-09: Enrolment-Based Indicators
With the increased coverage of schools under DISE, enrolment both at the primary and upper primary level of education has also increased significantly. The enrolment increased from 101.16 million in 2002-03 to 131.85 million in 2006-07 and further to 134.38 million in 2008-09. The GER at primary level, based on the DISE data is estimated to be 115.31 percent, corresponding to 98.59 percent NER. A few states are near achieving the goal of universal primary enrolment. Over a period of time, enrolment in upper primary classes has also shown consistent increase. From a low of 37.72 million in 2004-05, it has increased to 53.35 million in 2008-09 (GER 73.74 percent).
Gender Parity Index (GPI) and percentage of girls’ enrolment in primary and upper primary classes reveal that there is consistent improvement both in GPI and girls’ share in enrolment. The average of 633 districts in 2008-09 indicates a GPI of 0.94 in primary classes and 0.91 in case of upper primary classes.
At the primary level, the share of SC and ST enrolment with respect to total enrolment works out to 19.94 and 11.68 percent respectively. Notably, at all levels, government schools are the main providers of educational needs of both SC and ST children. The share of OBC enrolment in the elementary classes is 42.26 percent.
One of the essential requirements to achieve UEE is to retain students in the education system. The apparent survival rate (to Grade V) improved to 76 percent in 2008-09. This is also reflected in retention rate at primary level which is estimated to be 75 percent.
With improvement in the number of schools, facilities in schools and enrolment, the dropout rate for cohort 2007-08 indicates an average rate of 8.02 percent in primary grades. One of the other important indicators that are essential to achieve UEE is high transition from primary level to upper primary level of education. It has improved to 82.84 percent in 2008-09 from 81.13 percent in 2007-08.
Learner’s achievement is considered as one of the important indicators of quality of education. Examination results at the terminal grades is a proxy indicator of learner’s achievement. About 50 percent boys and 51 percent girls passed Grade IV/V with a score of 60 percent and above, compared to 43 percent boys and 44 percent girls scoring 60 percent and above marks in Grade VII/VIII; the same has shown imrovement over the previous year.
DISE 2008-09: MUSLIM Enrolment
The analysis of data suggests improvement in participation of Muslim Minority children in elementary education programmes. The data which has been received from 1.29 million recognised schools imparting elementary education from across 633 districts spread over 35 States and Union Territories of the country reveals a total enrolment of 14.83 million Muslim children in Primary classes in 2008-09 which is 11.03 percent of total 134.38 million enrolment (Total) in Primary (I to V) classes. During the pervious year, the same was 10.49 percent and in 2006-07, it was 9.39 percent. Of the total Muslim enrolment in Primary classes, the percentage of Muslim girls is 48.93 which is quite similar to the share of girls in overall Primary enrolment (48.38 percent). The highest percentage of Muslim enrolment is observed in Lakshadweep UT (99.73 percent) which is because of the fact that the percentage of Muslim population to total population in the UT in 2001 was as high as 95.47 percent.
Like enrolment in Primary classes, percentage of Muslim enrolment in Upper Primary classes has also improved to 9.13 percent in 2008-09 from 8.54 percent in 2007-08 and 7.52 percent in 2006-07. Of the total 53.35 million enrolment in Upper Primary classes in the country in 2008-09, Muslim enrolment is 4.87 million and the percentage of Muslim girls to total Muslim enrolment in Upper Primary classes is 50.03 percent which is above the national average of 47.58 percent girls enrolment in Upper Primary classes.
The data also reveals a share of 10.49 percent (Muslim enrolment) in Elementary classes (I to VIII) of which 49.20 percent are the Muslim girls (to total Muslim enrolment).
The enrolment data for the year 2008-09 also reveals that there are certain pockets in the country which has got high percentage of Muslim enrolment. There are about 87,690 schools which has got more than 25 percent Muslim enrolment (to total enrolment in elementary classes) which is 6.84 percent of the total schools that impart elementary education in the country. Similarly, 62,534 (4.88 percent) schools have above 50 percent Muslim enrolment as compared to 48,946 schools (3.82 percent) having 75 percent and above and 41,300 schools (3.22 percent) even having a share of 90 and above Muslim enrolment to total enrolment.
Because of the high percent share of Muslim population to total population in the state, 12 districts of Jammu and Kashmir have got above 90 percent Muslim enrolment in 2008-09 in Primary classes which is also true for enrolment in Upper Primary classes. On the other hand, 25 districts in the country have more than 50 percent Muslim enrolment in Primary classes in 2008-09 compared to 20 such districts in case of Upper Primary enrolment. 15 districts of Jammu and Kashmir, 1 district each from Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Lakshadweep and Kerala and 5 districts of Assam have more than 50 percent Muslim enrolment in Primary classes.
DISE 2008-09: Teacher-Related Indicators
Availability of teachers in schools is an important variable for quality education. The total number of teachers in 2008-09 suggests that about 5.79 million teachers are engaged in teaching in schools imparting elementary education in the country. The data also shows appointment of a large number of teachers across the country consequent to the SSA interventions. The all-India average reveals that, on an average, there were 4.5 teachers in a school in 2008-09 that imparts elementary education compared to an average of 3.0 teachers per primary school.
All schools together had 43.46 percent female teachers. Urban areas had higher percentage of female teachers than the rural areas; this is true for all school types. Increase in the number of teachers is also reflected in the pupil-teacher ratio which has shown consistent improvement. PTR, both at primary and upper primary levels, is quite comfortable (primary, 34:1 and upper primary, 31:1). There are about 538 thousand para-teachers, constituting 9.39 percent of the total number of teachers. About 54 percent para-teachers are Graduates and above. DISE data reveals that government is the main employer of both Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes teachers. The share of SC and ST teachers together in government schools is as high as 80 percent