Introduction: For whom is it important to understand project finance?
a. Financial managers.
d. Consultants and practitioners.
e. Project managers.
Why is it important to understand project finance?
The people involved in a project are used to find financing deal for major construction projects such as mining, transportation and public utility industries, that may result such risks and compensation for repayment of loan, insurance and assets in process. That’s why they need to learn about project finance in order to manage project cash flow for ensuring profits so it can be distributed among multiple parties, such as investors, lenders and other parties.
Definition of Project:
Organizations perform work continuously. These works include operations or projects though some works may overlap with each other. For the organizations, projects are important elements of change. They are considered to be the leading edge of change in organizations. A project consists of a combination of organizational resources pulled together to create something that did not previously exist and that will provide a performance capability in the design and execution of organizational strategies. Projects are conceptualized, designed, engineered and produced (or constructed); something is created that did not previously exist. An organizational strategy has been executed to facilitate the support of ongoing organizational life. Projects therefore support the ongoing activities of a going concern.
Project finance is a method of financing very large capital intensive projects, with long gestation period, where the lenders rely on the assets created for the project as security and the cash flow generated by the project as source of funds for repaying their dues.
Simply put, project finance is essentially financing on the security of the project itself, with limited or no recourse against the sponsors of the project or other parties involved in the development and implementation of the project. Due to such characteristics of project finance, the loans sought by the borrowers are always approved by the lenders on the basis of strong in-house appraisal of the cost and viability of the ventures as well as the credit standing of project promoters.
Project finance generally covers green-field industrial projects, capacity expansion at existing manufacturing units, construction ventures or other infrastructure projects. The term ‘infrastructure projects’ is used here in its general and wide meaning to describe physical structures (such as roads, highways, ports, airports etc.) or systems (such as electricity transmission system, pipeline distribution systems) that are designed, built, operated and maintained to provide for certain physical facilities (such as roads, railways, airports, urban mass rapid transit systems) or commodities (such as natural gas, petroleum, electricity) or for the due utilization of natural resources (water, crude oil, minerals) or provision of services (telecommunications, broadcasting, air transport services, waste handling and treatment) through the general public within the specified geographical area. Capital intensive business expansion and diversification as well as replacement of equipment may also be covered under project finance.
An understanding of the possible money streams into a particular project and the possible expenditure streams out of the same is essential to structure the finance. Such understanding would be based on an analysis of the legal framework governing the project, all of the project’s documentation including all government approvals with regard to the implementation and financing of the project and the finance documentations.
Project finance is quite often channeled through a project company known as special purpose vehicle or project development vehicle. Internationally, in addition to a private limited company, a limited company, a partnership and an unincorporated entity structure are all recognized as suitable project development vehicle. However, in India, a private limited company is regarded to be an appropriate project development vehicle as it ensures limited liability for the developers of the project, enables the shareholders to incorporate the various terms and conditions agreed to between them in the articles of association of the project company, thereby binding not only the shareholders themselves but also the company to such agreed terms. Besides, a private limited company also has greater avenues open for equity and loan financing.
1. Full Recourse Loan: A loan in which the lender can claim more than the collateral as repayment in the event that the loan is enforced. Thus a full recourse loan places the Sponsor’s assets at risk.
2. Non Recourse Loan: A loan in which the lender cannot claim more than the collateral as repayment in the event that the loan is enforced.
3. Limited Recourse Loan: A loan in which the lender can claim more than the collateral, subject to some restrictions, as repayment in the event that the loan is enforced.
Project Financing Participants and Agreements
Sponsor/Developer: The sponsor(s) or developer(s) of a project financing is the party that organizes all of the other parties and typically controls, and makes an equity investment in, the company or other entity that owns the project. If there is more than one sponsor, the sponsors typically will form a corporation or enter into a partnership or other arrangement pursuant to which the sponsors will form a "project company" to own the project and establish their respective rights and responsibilities regarding the project.
Additional Equity Investors: In addition to the sponsor(s), there frequently are additional equity investors in the project company. These additional investors may include one or more of the other project participants.
Construction Contractor: The construction contractor enters into a contract with the project company for the design, engineering, and construction of the project.
Operator: The project operator enters into a long-term agreement with the project company for the day-to-day operation and maintenance of the project.
Feedstock Supplier: The feedstock supplier(s) enters into a long-term agreement with the project company for the supply of feedstock (i.e., energy, raw materials or other resources) to the project (e.g., for a power plant, the feedstock supplier will supply fuel; for a paper mill, the feedstock supplier will supply wood pulp).
Product Off taker: The product off taker(s) enters into a long-term agreement with the project company for the purchase of all of the energy, goods or other product produced at the project.
Lender: The lender in a project financing is a financial institution or group of financial institutions that provide a loan to the project company to develop and construct the project and that take a security interest in all of the project assets.
Principle advantages and disadvantages of Project financing:
1. Non-Recourse: The typical project financing involves a loan to enable the sponsor to construct a project where the loan is completely ‘non-recourse’ to the sponsor, i.e., the sponsor has no obligation to make payments on the project loan if revenues generated by the project is insufficient to cover the principal and interest payments on the loan. In order to minimize the risks associated with a non-recourse loan, a lender typically will require indirect credit supports in the form of guarantees, warranties and other covenants from the sponsor, its affiliates and third parties involved with the project.
2. Maximise Leverage: In a project financing, the sponsor typically seeks to finance the cost of development and construction of the project on a highly leveraged basis. Frequently, such costs are financed using 80 to 100 percent debt. High leverage in a non-recourse project financing permits a sponsor to put less in funds at risk, permits a sponsor to finance the project without diluting its equity investment in the project and, in certain circumstances, also may permit reductions in the cost of capital by substituting lower-cost, tax-deductible interest for higher-cost, taxable returns on equity.
3. Off-Balance-Sheet Treatment: Depending upon the structure of project financing, the project sponsor may not be required to report any of the project debt on its balance sheet because such debt is non-recourse to the sponsor. Off-balance-sheet treatment can have the added practical benefit of helping the sponsor comply with covenants and restrictions relating to borrowing funds contained in other indentures and credit agreements to which the sponsor is a party.
4. Maximize tax benefit: Project financings should be structured to maximize tax benefits and to assure that all possible tax benefits are used by the sponsor or transferred, to the extent permissible, to another party through a partnership, lease or other vehicle.
Project financings are extremely complex. It may take much longer period of time to structure, negotiate and document a project financing than a traditional financing, and the legal fees and related costs associated with a project financing can be very high. Because the risks assumed by lenders may be greater in a non-recourse project financing than in a more traditional financing, the cost of capital may be greater than with a traditional financing.
Stages in Project Financing
|Project identification||Pre Financing Stage|
|Risk identification & minimizing|
|Technical and financial feasibility|
|Equity arrangement||Financing Stage|
|Negotiation and syndication|
|Commitments and documentation|
|Monitoring and review||Post Financing Stage|
|Financial Closure / Project Closure|
|Repayments & Subsequent monitoring|
Preparation of Project Report
A project report is essential before a decision for setting-up of any project is taken. The most important thing in any project financing is preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) which should be made beautifully for getting the project approved from banks/financial institutions. After preparation of DPR the proposal is moved to the banks/financial institutions for processing of the file.
Project Report must include the followings:
A. Technical Feasibility
All the factors relating to infrastructure needs, technology, availability of machine, material etc. are required to be scrutinized under this head. Broadly speaking the factors that are covered under this aspect include:
1. Availability of basic infrastructure- It includes the land and its location as per present and future needs, lay out and building plan including finalization of structure, availability of water and power, availability of cheap labour in abundant supply.
2. Licensing/ registration requirements
3. Selection of technology/ technical process- The technical process/technology selected for the project must be readily available either indigenously or necessary arrangements for foreign collaboration must be finalized. Further the selected technology must find a successful application in Indian environment and the management shall be capable of fully absorbing the technology.
4. Availability of suitable machinery/raw material/ skilled labour etc- After selection of technical process, the availability of suitable kind of machinery is most important factor which needs to be considered. It should be ensured that the suppliers are capable to supply the plant and machinery timely along with all spare parts
B. Managerial Competence
The ultimate success of even well conceived and viable project may depend on how competently it is managed. The promoters of the project have to provide necessary leadership and their qualification, experience and track record will be closely examined by lending institution. The detail of other projects successfully implemented by the same promoters may provide the necessary confidence of these institutions and help final approval of the project.
The reputation of the promoters group in the market is also very important factor which the banks/ financial institutions consider while lending to the companies. Also the bank/ financial institutions check the payment history of past loan raised by the companies in which the promoters are directors which shows their willingness of repayment of the loans. CIBIL is a very strong tool in the hand of banks/ financial institutions to verify the payment history and the number of loans raised by the companies from the date of existence.
C. Commercial Viability
Any project can be commercially viable only if it is able to sell its product at profit. For this purpose it would be necessary to study demand and supply pattern of that particular product to determine its marketability. Various methods such as trend method, regression method for estimation of demand are employed which is than to be matched with the available supply of a particular product.
D. Financial Viability
Factors need to consider for financial viability:
1. Cost of project: A realistic assessment of cost of project is necessary to determine the source for its availability and to properly evaluate the financial viability of the projects. For this purpose, the various items of cost may be sub-divided as many sub-heads as possible so that all factor are taken into consideration for arriving at the total cost.
Cost includes the following:
a. Land Cost- Acquisition of project land, registry charges, and charges for other clearance.
b. Site Development Cost- to make the project easily accessible it is necessary to build roads, water tank, boundary walls, arranging electricity, levelling the site, demarcation of site, making available the basic amenities etc.
c. Buildings Cost- it includes lay out and building plan along with the structure cost, building the site office, factory sheds, godowns, residential flats for staff etc.
d. Plant and Machinery- cost of plant and machinery, any foreign assistance for installation, salary of technical staff, transportation cost, foreign currency fluctuations (if any), bank commissions, L/C Charges etc.
e. Miscellaneous Fixed Assets
f. Preliminary Expenses- licence required to start commercial production from the local authorities along with other clearances etc.
g. Contingencies- normally 5% extra cost is taken as contingency to avoid any kind of cost over-run at the end of implementation of project.
h. Margin for Working Capital- for running a project it is necessary to fuel it with the working capital. It works like a lubricant for any kind of business. It is financed against receivables and stock. A proper assessment of the same should be done. Banks now generally require that 25% of the total current assets (working capital) shall be the margin to be provided from the long term resources and 75% shall be financed by them.
2. Means of Finance: After estimation of the cost of the project, the next step will be to find out the source of funds by means of which the project will be financed. The project will be financed by contribution of funds by the promoter himself and also by raising loans from others including term loans from banks and financial institutions.
The means of financing will include:
1. Issue of share capital including ordinary/preference shares.
2. Issue of secured debentures.
3. Secured long-term and medium-term loans (including the loans for which the application is being put up to term lending institutions).
4. Unsecured loans and deposits from promoters, directors etc.
5. Deferred payments.
6. Capital subsidy from Central/State Government.
3. Security Coverage and Promoters Contribution: In today scenario and being to play safe, the bankers wants that at least the promoters should contribute 40% of the total project cost. The long term sources of funds are utilized for acquisition of land, procuring the fixed assets and construction of building etc. But for day to day expenses, payment of staff salary, purchasing the stocks etc. the project require short term loan or working capital loans. Hence the financing for a project is the mix of both long term and short term loans. In project funding the bank has charge on the land, building, any super structure thereof and hypothecation of stocks & receivables and all the current assets relating to project. It is considered as primary security but the bankers may ask for collaterals also in addition to the primary security.
4. Profitability Analysis: After determine the cost of the project and means of financing, the viability of the project will depend on its capacity to earn profits to service the debts and capital. To undertake the profitability analysis, it will be necessary to draw estimates of the cost of production and working results. These estimates are made for a period which should at least cover the moratorium and repayment periods. Generally in case of project loans repayment begins after 2-3 years, the time gap between the disbursement of loan and repayment of first installment is called moratorium period. Further repayment should start in that quarter or month when it is assured that the project will have sufficient cash profit to service the same in that particular quarter or month. Also, the moratorium and repayment period is decided while submitting the proposal to the banks hence while selecting these periods’ accurate calculations should be done.
5. Projected Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account and Projected Cash Flow: The projected financials of the project is prepared for the entire tenure as estimated above.
6. Break-Even Point: Estimations of working results pre-suppose a definite level of production and sales and all calculations are based on that level. The minimum level of production and sales at which the unit will run on “no profit no loss” is known as break-even point and the first goal of any project would be to reach that level. The break-even point can be expressed in terms of volume of production or as a percentage of plant capacity utilization.
Break-even in terms of volume of production = Total Fixed Cost/ Contribution per unit
7. Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR): Debt Service Coverage Ratio is calculated to find out the capacity of the project servicing its debt i.e. in repayment of the term loan borrowings and interest. The DSCR is worked out in the following manner:
D.S.C.R = (PAT + Depreciation + Interest on Long Term Borrowings) / (Repayments of Term Borrowings during the year + Interest on long-term borrowings)
The higher D.S.C.R. would impart intrinsic strength to the project to repay its term borrowings and interest as per the schedule even if some of the projections are not fully realized. Normally a minimum D.S.C.R. of 2:1 is insisted upon by the term lending institutions and repayment is fixed on that basis.
8. Sensitivity Analysis: While evaluating profitability projections, the sensitivity analysis may be carried in relation to changes in the sale price and raw material costs, i.e. sale price may reduce by 5% to 10% and raw material costs may be increased by 5% to 10% and the impact of these changes on DSCR shall be analyzed. If the new DSCR, so calculated after changes, still proves that the project is viable, the financial institution may go ahead in funding the project.
9. Internal Rate of Return: This is an indicator of earning capacity of the project and a higher IRR indicates better prospects for the project. The present investment in the cash flow which is assumed to be negative cash flow and the return (cash inflow) are assumed to be positive cash flows. Normally bankers want that internal rate of return should be at least 18% because it depicts the strength of the project and its earning and repayment capacity at the same time. Better the IRR better rating to the project.
E. Environmental, Political and Economic Viability
The performance of the project is also influenced by the external factors also such as existing government policies regarding particular sector, easiness in getting the licence to operate in a particular region or state, effects of the project on the environment, tax exemptions for particular region etc. Hence while compiling the project report it is important to study the industry scenario, government policies etc and these should be covered in the project report.
Project Appraisal is a process of detailed examination of several aspects of a given project before recommending the same. The lending institution has to ensure that the investment on the proposed project will generate sufficient returns on the investments made and that loan amount disbursed for the implementation of the project will be recovered along with interest within a reasonable period of time. The various aspects of Project appraisal are:
1. Technical Appraisal
2. Commercial Appraisal or Market Appraisal (Demand of the product, supply of the product, distribution channels, pricing of the product and government policies.
3. Economic Appraisal
4. Management Appraisal (assessing the willingness of the borrower to repay the loan)
5. Financial Appraisal
Methods of the Project Financing
There are three methods in Project Financing:
1. Cost Share Financing or Low interest loan financing.
2. Debts Financing.
3. Equity Financing.
Sources for Financing Fixed Assets
The type of funds required for acquiring fixed assets have to be of longer duration and these would normally comprise of borrowed funds and own funds. There are several types of longâ€‘term loans and credit facilities available which a company may utilise to acquire the desired fixed assets. These are briefly explained as under.
1. Term Loan :-
(a) Rupee loan- Rupee loan is available from financial institutions and banks for setting up new projects as, well as for expansion, modernisation or rehabilitation of existing units. The rupee term loan can be utilised for incurring expenditure in rupees for purchase of land, building, plant and machinery, electric fittings, etc.
The duration of such loan varies from 5 to 10 years including a moratorium of up to a period of 3 years. Projects costing up to Rs. 500 lakhs are eligible for refinance from all India financial institutions and are financed by the State level financial institutions in participation with commercial banks.
Projects with a cost of over Rs. 500 lakhs are considered for financing by all India financial institutions. They entertain applications for foreign currency loan assistance for smaller amounts also irrespective of whether the machinery to be financed is being procured by way of balancing equipment, modernisation or as a composite part of a new project.
For the convenience of entrepreneurs, the financial institutions have devised a standard application form. All projects whether in the nature of new, expansion, diversification, modernisation or rehabilitation with a capital cost upto 5 crores can be financed by the financial institution either on its own or in participation with State level financial institutions and banks.
(b) Foreign Currency term loan. Assistance in the nature of foreign currency loan is available for incurring foreign currency expenditure towards import of plant and machinery, for payment of remuneration and expenses in foreign currency to foreign technicians for obtaining technical knowâ€‘how.
Foreign currency loans are sanctioned by term lending institutions and commercial banks under the various lines of credits already procured by them from the international markets. The liability of the borrower under the foreign currency loan remains in the foreign currency in which the borrowing has been made. The currency allocation is made by the lending financial institution on the basis of the available lines of credit and the time duration within which the entire line of credit has to be, fully utilised.
2. Deferred payment guarantee (DPG) - Assistance in the nature of Deferred Payment Guarantee is available for purchase of indigenous as well as imported plant and, machinery. Under this scheme guarantee is given by concerned bank/financial institutions about repayment of the principal along with interest and deferred instalments. This is a very important type of assistance particularly useful for existing profitâ€‘making companies who can acquire additional plant and machinery without much loss of time. Even the banks and financial institutions grant assistance under Deferred Payment Guarantee more easily than term loan as there is no immediate outflow of cash.
3. Soft loan - This is available under special scheme operated through allâ€‘India financial institutions. Under this scheme assistance is granted for modernisation and rehabilitation of industrial units. The loans are extended at a lower rate of interest and assistance is also provided in respect of promoters contribution, debtâ€‘equity ratio, repayment period as well as initial moratorium.
4. Supplier's line of credit - Under this scheme nonâ€‘revolving line of credit is extended to the seller to be utilised within a stipulated period. Assistance is provided to manufacturers for promoting sale of their industrial equipments on deferred payment basis. While on the other hand this credit facility can be availed of by actual users for purchase of plant/equipment for replacement or modernisation schemes only.
5. Buyer’s credit - Under a buyer's credit arrangement, a specific long-term loan is granted by a designated lending agency in the exporter's country to the buyer in the import, country against a guarantee by an acceptable bank or financial institution. The supplier receives payment for the exports on his delivering to the lending agency the requisite documents specified in the loan agreement and the relative commercial contract. The lending agency realises the payment from the buy (importer) in instalments as and when they fall due. Ordinarily, the supplier of his obligation reckons the period credit as the duration from the date of completion.
6. Debentures - Long - term funds can also be raised through debenture with the objective of financing new undertakings, expansion, diversification and also for augmenting the longâ€‘term resources of the company for working capital requirements. Debenture holders are long term creditors of the company. As a secured instrument, it is a promise to pay interest and repay principal at stipulated times. In the contrast to equity capital which is a variable income (dividend/ security, the debenture / notes are fixed income (interest) security).
7. Leasing - Leasing is a general contract between the owner and user of the assets over a specified period of time. The asset is purchased initially by the lessor (leasing company) and thereafter leased to the user (lessee company) which pays a specified rent at periodical intervals. The ownership of the asset lies with the lessor while the lessee only acquires possession and right to use the assets subject to the agreement. Thus, leasing is an alternative to the purchase of an asset out of own or borrowed funds. Moreover, lease finance can be arranged much faster as compared to term loans from financial institutions.
8. Public deposits - Deposits from public is a valuable source of finance particularly for well established large companies with a huge capital base. As the amount of deposits that can he accepted by a company is restricted to 25 per cent of the paid up share capital and free reserves, smaller companies find this source less attractive. Moreover, the period of deposits is restricted to a maximum of 3 years at a time. Consequently, this source can provide finance only for short to medium term, which could be more useful for meeting working capital requirements. In other words, public deposits as a source of finance cannot be utilised for project financing or for buying capital goods unless the payback period is very short or the company uses it as a means of bridge finance to be replaced by a regular term loan.
Before accepting deposits a company has to comply with the requirements of section 58A of the Companies Act, 1956 and Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 1975 that lay down the various conditions applicable in this regard.
9. Own Fund:
a. Equity: Promoters of a project have to involve themselves in the financing of the project by providing adequate equity base. From the bankers/financial institutions' point of view the level of equity proposed by the promoters is an important indicator about the seriousness and capacity of the promoters.
Moreover, the amount of equity that ought to be subscribed by the promoters will also depend upon the debt: equity norms, stock exchange regulations and the level of investment, which will be adequate to ensure control of the company.
The total equity amount may be either contributed by the promoters themselves or they may partly raise the equity from the public. So far as the promoters stake in the equity is concerned, it may be raised from the directors, their relatives and friends. Equity may also be raised from associate companies in the group who have surplus funds available with them. Besides, equity participation may be obtained from State financial corporation/industrial development corporations.
Another important source for equity could be the foreign collaborations. Of course, the participation of foreign collaborators will depend upon the terms of collaboration agreement and the investment would be subject to approval from Government and Reserve Bank of India. Normally, the Government has been granting approvals for equity investment by foreign collaborators as per the prevailing policy. The equity participation by foreign collaborators may be by way of direct payment in foreign currency or supply of technical knowâ€‘how/ plant and machinery.
Amongst the various participants in the equity, the most important group would be the general investing public. The existence of giant corporations would impossible but for the investment by small shareholders. In fact, it would be no exaggeration to say that the real foundation of the corporate sector are the small shareholders who contribute the bulk of equity funds. The equity capital raised from the public will depend upon several factors viz. prevailing market conditions, investors' psychology, promoters track record, nature of industry, government policy, listing requirements, etc.
The promoters will have to undertake an exercise to ascertain the maximum amount that may have to be raised by way of equity from the public after asking into account the investment in equity by the promoters, their associates and from various sources mentioned earlier. Besides, some equity may also be possible through private placement. Hence, only the remaining gap will have to filled by making an issue to the public.
b. Preference share: Though preference shares constitute an independent source of finance, unfortunately, over the years preference shares have lost the ground to equity and as a result today preference shares enjoy limited patronage. Due to fixed dividend, no voting rights except under certain circumstances and lack of participation in the profitability of the company, fewer shareholders are interested to invest moneys in preference shares. However, section of the investors who prefer low risksâ€‘fixed income securities do invest in preference shares. Nevertheless, as a source of finance it is of limited import and much reliance cannot be placed on it.
Compliance with Different Laws & Regulations
In this context it would be pertinent to note that while initiating the process for making a public issue of equity /preference shares, the promoters will have to comply with the requirements of different laws and regulations including Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, Companies Act, 1956 and SEBI guide-lines etc., and various rules, administrative guidelines, circulars, notifications and clarifications issued there under by the concerned authorities from time to time.
c. Retained earnings: Plough back of profits or generated surplus constitutes one of the major sources of finance. However, this source is available only to existing successful companies with good internal generation. The quantum and availability of retained earnings depends upon several factors including the market conditions, dividend distribution policy of the company, profitability, Government policy, etc. Hence, retained earnings as a source plays an important role in expansion, diversification or modernisation of an existing successful company. There are several companies who believe in financing growth through internal generation as this enables them to further consolidate their financial position. In fact, retained earnings play a much greater role in the financing of working capital requirements.
d. Unsecured Loans: If there is some shortfall in the mean-of-finance, the promoters/ directors can mobilize funds from their friends, relatives and well-wishers. Such loans are always unsecured i.e., the lenders cannot have any charge over the assets of the company. Banks and financial institutions stipulate the following conditions if unsecured loan is to form part of the means-of-finance.
- The promoters shall not repay the unsecured loan till the term loan persists.
- Interest if any payable on unsecured loan shall be paid only after meeting the term loan repayment committees.
-The rate of interest payable on unsecured loan shall not be higher than the rate of interest applicable for term loans. Normally unsecured loan component is expected not to exceed 50% of the equity capital.
10. Bridge Loans: This is a temporary loan meant for tying up the capital cost of the project. The necessity for bridge finance arises in situations where finance from particular source is being delayed. However, the availability of finance from that source is certain.
11. Seed Capital: In consonance with the Government policy which encourages a new class of entrepreneurs and also intends wider dispersal of ownership and control of manufacturing units, a special scheme to supplement the resource & of an entrepreneur has been introduced by the Government. Assistance under this scheme is available in the nature of seed capital which is normally given by way of long term interest free loan. Seed capital assistance is provided to small as well as medium scale units promoted by eligible entrepreneurs.
12. Government subsidies: Subsidies extended by the Central as well as State Government form a very important type of funds available to a company for implementing its project. Subsidies may be available in the nature of outright cash grant or long - term interest free loan. In fact, while finalising the mean of finance, Government subsidy forms an important source having a vital bearing on the implementation of many a project.
The key to any project finance is to use a right mix of debt and equity. Further, there should be a right mix of foreign currency and rupee loans. It is also essential that there should be flexibility in respect of switching from foreign currency to rupee loan and vice versa. There are a number of issues highlighted herein above which need to be considered for the purpose of financing of the project. Besides, it is important that due care is taken in drafting the documents concerning the financing of the project.
The companies should adopt the project financing structures so that the objective of shareholder’s wealth maximization can be achieved. As the world is heading towards a global integrated market and the failure of governments as well as the demand for private capital in infrastructure assets is increasing, project finance will continue to play an important role in both developed and developing markets.
1. Book on ‘Project Financing and Management’ available on www.scribd.com
2. Article on Project Financing by CA Manoj Kumar Gupta
5. Articles/ Discussions from www.caclubindia.com