Direct Tax Legislations are one of the significant modes which enable the State to realize the objectives of both Social and Economic Justice as also defraying the cost of rendering public services on the part of the State, Economic order as enunciated in Part-IV (i.e. of the Directive Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution of India. The emphasis is shifting progressively to voluntary compliance of tax laws’; but it will be an exercise in futility, in case it is not backed by strong deterrence against tax evaders so that they do not go with impunity. There are three modes built in the fiscal legislation for encouraging tax compliance: (a) Charge of Interest, (b) imposition of penalty (c) launching of prosecution against tax delinquents. While charging of interest is compensatory on character, the imposition of penalty and institution of prosecution proceedings act as strong deterrents against potential tax delinquents.
Chapters XVII and XXI of Income-tax Act, 1961, contain various provisions empowering an Income-tax Authority to levy penalty in case of certain defaults. The following defaults may invite levy of penalty:
|(i)||When the assessee is in default or is deemed to be in default in making payment of tax, including the tax deducted at source, advance tax and the self assessment tax. [Section 221 read with Sec.201(1)]|
|(ii)||Failure to pay the advance tax as directed by the Assessing Officer or as estimated by the assessee. [Section 273(1)]|
|(iii)||Failure to comply with a notice issued under section 142(1) or 143(2) or failure to comply with the direction issued under section 142(2A) to get the accounts audited. [Section 271(1)(b)]|
|(iv)||Concealment of particulars of income or furnishing of inaccurate particulars of income. [Section 271(1)(c)]|
|(v)||Failure to maintain books of accounts and documents by persons carrying on profession or business as prescribed under section 44AA. [Section 271A]|
|(vi)||Failure to get the accounts audited in prescribed circumstances or failure to obtain the prescribed audit report within prescribed time period of failure to furnish the audit report along with the return, as required under section 44AB. [Section 271B]|
|(vii)||Failure to subscribe to the eligible issue of capital [Section 271BB]|
|(viia)||Penalty for failure to deduct tax at source. [Section 271C]|
|(viii)||Accepting of any loan or deposit or repayment of deposit of Rs.20,000 or more otherwise than by account payee cheque or account payee draft, in contravention of the provisions of Section 269SS. [Section 271D]|
|(viiia)||Repayment of loan in contravention of the conditions imposed in section 269T. [Section 271E]|
|(ix)||Refusal to answer in contravention of legal obligation. [Section 272A(1)(a)]|
|(x)||Refusal to sign any statement made in the course of income-tax proceedings. [Section 272A(1)(b)]|
|(xi)||Failure to attend or give evidence or produce books of accounts and documents in compliance with the requirements of summons under section 131(1). [Section 272A(1)(c)]|
|(xii)||Failure to comply with the provisions of section 139A dealing with the application for and allotment of Permanent Account Number or General Index Register Number. [Section 272A(1)(d)]|
|(xiii)||Failure to furnish information regarding securities. [Section 272A(2)(a)]|
|(xiv)||Failure to give notice of discontinuance of business or profession. [Section 272A(2)(b)]|
|(xv)||Failure to furnish in due time information sought under section 133 of Income-tax Act. [Section 272A(2)(c)]|
|(xvi)||Failure to furnish in due time prescribed returns/statements. [Section 272A(2)(c)]|
|(xvii)||Failure to allow inspection or take copies of registers of registers of companies. [Section 272A(2)(d)]|
|(xviii)||Failure to furnish in due time the return of income by charitable or religious institutions. [Section 272A(2)(e)]|
|(xix)||Failure to deliver in due time a copy of declaration of non-deduction of tax at source u/s.197A. [Section 272A(2)(f)]|
|(xx)||Failure to furnish a certificate of tax deducted at source to the person on whose behalf tax has been deducted or collected as required by Section 203 or Section 206C. [Section 272A(2)(g)]|
|(xxi)||Failure to deduct and pay tax from salary payable to an employee as directed by the Assessing Officer or the Tax Recovery Officer as required by Section 226(2). [Section 272A(2)(h)]|
|(xxii)||Failure to allow an Income-tax Authority to collect any information useful or relevant to the purposes of Income-tax Act u/s.133B. [Section 272AA)]|
|(xxiii)||Failure to comply with the provisions of section 203a dealing with tax Deduction Account Number [Section 272BB]|
No penalty under the Income-tax Act is imposed unless the person concerned has been given reasonable opportunity of being heard.
The quantum of penalty leviable depends upon the nature of default. The relevant section of Income-tax Act prescribe the minimum and maximum penalties which can be levied.
The Commissioner of Income-tax may reduce or waive the amount of any penalty imposed or imposable, if prescribed conditions are satisfied. The assessee should voluntarily and in good faith make full and true disclosure of income prior to the detection of concealment by the Assessing Officer. In cerain cases of genuine hardship, the penalty levied can be reduced/waived if the assessee has co-operated in any enquiry relating to the assessment and recovery of taxes. The waiver/reduction of penalties is discretionary and dependent upon satisfaction or prescribed conditions. No assessee can, a matter of right, claim waiver or reduction of penalty imposed or imposable upon him. [Section 273A]
In the fight against tax evasion, the imposition of monetary penalty alone is not sufficient. A calculating tax evader finds it profitable to evade tax for years, if he knows that he may get away with it by paying penalty in the year in which he is caught. However, the prospect of landing in jail is a far more dreaded consequence and works as a deterrent. Further, for more serious defaults, sometimes launching of prosecution is prescribed without prescribing monetary penalties.
The Parliament has, therefore, been enacting deterrent laws for effective implementation of tax laws. The Income-tax Act contains a separate chapter XXII wherein offences have been defined and punishment provided.
The following offences committed by a person are punishable:
|(i)||Removal, parting with or otherwise dealing with books of accounts, documents, money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article or thing put under restraint during the search. [Section 275A]|
|(ii)||Fraudulent removal, concealment, transfer or delivery of any property or any interest in the property with the intention to thwart recovery of tax. [Section 276]|
|(iii)||Failure on the part of a liquidator or receiver of a company to give notice of his appointment to the Assessing Officer or failure to set apart amount notified by the Assessing Officer, or parting away of company’s properties in contravention of income-tax provision. [Section 276A]|
|(iv)||Failure to enter into written agreement or failure to furnish the statement of immovable property intended to be transferred u/s.269UC, or failure to surrender or deliver the property u/s.269UE, purchased by the Appropriate Authority or doing or omitting to do anything u/s.269UL, which will have the effect of transfer of property without the permission of the Appropriate Authority (under the provisions of Chapter XX-C) [Section 276AB]|
|(v)||Failure to pay to the credit of the Central Government the tax deducted at source. [Section 276B]|
|(va)||Failure to pay the tax collected at source. [Section 276BB]|
|(vi)||Wilful attempt to evade any tax, penalty or interest [Section 276C(1)]|
|(vii)||Wilful attempt to evade the payment of any tax, penalty or interest levied under Income Tax Act. [Section 276C(2)]|
|(viii)||Wilful failure to furnish in due time return of income. [Section 276CC)]|
|(viiia)||Failure to furnish return of income in Search Cases as required under section 158BC [Section 276CCC]|
|(ix)||Wilful failure to produce accounts and documents as directed by issue of notice under section 142(1) [Section 276D]|
|(x)||Wilful failure to get the accounts audited as directed by the Assessing Officer under section 142(2A). [Section 276D]|
|(xi)||Making of a statement in verification or delivery of an account or statement which is false and which the concerned person knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true. [Section 277]|
|(xii)||Abetting or inducing another person to make and deliver an account or statement or declaration relating to any taxable income which is false and which he either knows or believes to be false. [Section 278]|
|(xiii)||Punishment for 2nd & subsequent offences in cases of certain defaults. [Section 278A]|
No person shall be punished for any failure if he proves that there is reasonable cause failure. [Section 278AA].
Any person, committing the ofference is liable to be prosecuted. In this connection it is not necessary that the person should be an assessee under the Income-tax Act. In the case of an offence committed by a Company, Firm, Association of Persons or Body of Individuals, every person in charge of or responsible for the conduct of the business of the concern as well as the concern are deemed to be guilty. Similarly, in the case of an offence by a Hindu Undivided Family, the karta thereof, is deemed to be guilty of the offence.
In case of wilful act of omission or commission, the court shall presume the existence of culpable mental state. However, the accused can rebut this presumption by producing necessary evidence before the court. (Section 278E).
Section 279(2) of Income-tax Act empowers a Chief Commissioner of Director General of Income-tax to compound an offence either before or after the institution of prosecution proceeding.
If a public servant furnishes any information in contravention of the provisions of Section 138(2), prosecution may be instituted against him with the previous sanction of the Central Government. (Section 280).