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As per the commencement notification Effective from 12.09.2013 for the new Companies Act 2013 the following 98 sections and 75 definitions from Section 2 have been enforced by MCA. This is just the list of all such section with reference of pervious act section in bracket.

Definitions-Section 2:

1: abridged prospectus

3: alteration

4: appellate tribunal

5: articles

6: associate company

8: authorised capital (new)

9: banking company

10: board of directors or board

11: body corporate

12: book and paper and book or paper

14: branch office

15: called-up capital (new)

16: charge (new)

17: chartered accountant (new)

18: chief executive officer (new)

19: chief financial officer (new)

20: company

21: company limited by guarantee

22: company limited by shares

24: company secretary

25: company secretary in practice

26: contributory

27: control (new)

28: cost accountant (new)

29: Court (except sub clause IV which talks about Special Court)

30: debenture

32: depository

33: derivative

34: director

35: dividend

36: document

37: employees’ stock option

38: expert (new)

39: financial institution (new)

40: financial statement (new)

43: free reserves

44: global depository receipt (new)

45: Government Company

58: notification (new)

59: officer

60: officer who is in default

61: official liquidator

63: ordinary or special resolution (new)

64: paid up share capital (new)

65: postal ballot (new)

66: prescribed

67: previous company law (except sub clause ix relating to Registration of Companies (Sikkim) Act, 1961)

68: private company

69: promoter (new)

70: prospectus

71: public company

72: public financial institution

73: recognized stock exchange

74: register of companies (new)

75: registrar

76: related party

77: relative (the list of relatives as per sub clause iii is yet to be prescribed)

78: remuneration

79: schedule

80: scheduled bank

81: securities

82: securities and exchange board

84: share

85: small company (new)

86: subscribed capital (new)

87: subsidiary company or subsidiary (except the proviso and explanation (d)

88: sweat equity shares

89: total voting power

90: tribunal (new)

91: turnover (new)

92: unlimited company (new)

93: voting right (new)

94: whole time director (new)

95: words & expression borrowed from SCRA, SEBI and Depositories Act…

(Kindly note that highlighted text is not enforced yet.)

Other Sections in force

Section 19: Subsidiary Company not to hold shares in its holding company (old section 42)

19. (1) No company shall, either by itself or through its nominees, hold any shares in its holding company and no holding company shall allot or transfer its shares to any of its subsidiary companies and any such allotment or transfer of shares of a company to its subsidiary company shall be void:

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a case—

(a) where the subsidiary company holds such shares as the legal representative of a deceased member of the holding company; or

(b) Where the subsidiary company holds such shares as a trustee; or

(c) where the subsidiary company is a shareholder even before it became a subsidiary company of the holding company:  Provided further that the subsidiary company referred to in the preceding proviso shall have a right to vote at a meeting of the holding company only in respect of the shares held by it as a legal representative or as a trustee, as referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of the said proviso.

(2) The reference in this section to the shares of a holding company which is a company limited by guarantee or an unlimited company, not having a share capital, shall be construed as a reference to the interest of its members, whatever be the form of interest.

Section 21: Authentication of documents, proceedings and contracts (old section 54)

21. Save as otherwise provided in this Act, — (a) a document or proceeding requiring authentication by a company; or

(b) Contracts made by or on behalf of a company, may be signed by any key managerial personnel or an officer of the company duly authorised by the Board in this behalf.

Section 22: Execution of Bills of Exchange, etc (old section 48)

22. (1) a bill of exchange, hundi or promissory note shall be deemed to have been made, accepted, drawn or endorsed on behalf of a company if made, accepted, drawn, or endorsed in the name of, or on behalf of or on account of, the company by any person acting under its authority, express or implied.

(2) A company may, by writing under its common seal, authorise any person, either generally or in respect of any specified matters, as its attorney to execute other deeds on its behalf in any place either in or outside India.

(3) A deed signed by such an attorney on behalf of the company and under his seal shall bind the company and have the effect as if it were made under its common seal.

Section 23: Public offer and private placement (except clause (b) of sub section (1) and sub section (2) (New Provisions)

23. (1) a public company may issue securities—

(a) To public through prospectus (herein referred to as "public offer") by complying with the provisions of this Part; or

(b) Through private placement by complying with the provisions of Part II of this Chapter; or

(c) Through a rights issue or a bonus issue in accordance with the provisions of this Act and in case of a listed company or a company which intends to get its securities listed also with the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 and the rules and regulations made thereunder.

(2) A private company may issue securities—

(a) By way of rights issue or bonus issue in accordance with the provisions of this Act; or

(b) Through private placement by complying with the provisions of Part II of this Chapter.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this Chapter, "public offer" includes initial public offer or further public offer of securities to the public by a company, or an offer for sale of securities to the public by an existing shareholder, through issue of a prospectus.

Section 24: Power of securities and exchange board to regulate issue and transfer of securities etc (old section 55A)

24. (1) the provisions contained in this Chapter, Chapter IV and in section 127 shall,—

(a) In so far as they relate to —

(i) Issue and transfer of securities; and

(ii) non-payment of dividend, by listed companies or those companies which intend to get their securities listed on any recognised stock exchange in India, except as provided under this Act, be administered by the Securities and Exchange Board by making regulations in this behalf;

(b) In any other case, be administered by the Central Government.

Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that all powers relating to all other matters relating to prospectus, return of allotment, redemption of preference shares and any other matter specifically provided in this Act, shall be exercised by the Central Government, the Tribunal or the Registrar, as the case may be.

(2) The Securities and Exchange Board shall, in respect of matters specified in subsection

(1) and the matters delegated to it under proviso to sub-section (1) of section 458, exercise the powers conferred upon it under sub-sections (1), (2A), (3) and (4) of section 11, sections 11A, 11B and 11D of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

Section 25: Document containing offer of securities for sale to be deemed prospectus [except sub section (3)] (old section 64)

25. (1) where a company allots or agrees to allot any securities of the company with a view to all or any of those securities being offered for sale to the public, any document by which the offer for sale to the public is made shall, for all purposes, be deemed to be a prospectus issued by the company; and all enactments and rules of law as to the contents of prospectus and as to liability in respect of mis-statements, in and omissions from, prospectus, or otherwise relating to prospectus, shall apply with the modifications specified in subsections (3) and (4) and shall have effect accordingly, as if the securities had been offered to the public for subscription and as if persons accepting the offer in respect of any securities were subscribers for those securities, but without prejudice to the liability, if any, of the persons by whom the offer is made in respect of mis-statements contained in the document or otherwise in respect thereof.

(2) For the purposes of this Act, it shall, unless the contrary is proved, be evidence that an allotment of, or an agreement to allot, securities was made with a view to the securities being offered for sale to the public if it is shown— (a) that an offer of the securities or of any of them for sale to the public was made within six months after the allotment or agreement to allot; or (b) that at the date when the offer was made, the whole consideration to be received by the company in respect of the securities had not been received by it.

(3) Section 26 as applied by this section shall have effect as if —

(i) it required a prospectus to state in addition to the matters required by that section to be stated in a prospectus—

(a) the net amount of the consideration received or to be received by the company in respect of the securities to which the offer relates; and

(b) the time and place at which the contract where under the said securities have been or are to be allotted may be inspected;

(ii) the persons making the offer were persons named in a prospectus as directors of a company.

(4) Where a person making an offer to which this section relates is a company or a firm, it shall be sufficient if the document referred to in sub-section (1) is signed on behalf of the company or firm by two directors of the company or by not less than one-half of the partners in the firm, as the case may be.

Section 29: Public offer of securities to be in dematerialised form (old section 68B)

29. (1) notwithstanding anything contained in any other provisions of this Act,— (a) every company making public offer; and (b) such other class or classes of public companies as may be prescribed, shall issue the securities only in dematerialised form by complying with the provisions of the Depositories Act, 1996 and the regulations made thereunder.

(2) Any company, other than a company mentioned in sub-section (1), may convert its securities into dematerialised form or issue its securities in physical form in accordance with the provisions of this Act or in dematerialised form in accordance with the provisions of the Depositories Act, 1996 and the regulations made thereunder.

Section 30: Advertisement of prospectus (old section 66)

30. Where an advertisement of any prospectus of a company is published in any manner, it shall be necessary to specify therein the contents of its memorandum as regards the objects, the liability of members and the amount of share capital of the company, and the names of the signatories to the memorandum and the number of shares subscribed for by them, and its capital structure

Section 31: Shelf prospectus (old section 60A)

31. (1) Any class or classes of companies, as the Securities and Exchange Board may provide by regulations in this behalf, may file a shelf prospectus with the Registrar at the stage of the first offer of securities included therein which shall indicate a period not exceeding one year as the period of validity of such prospectus which shall commence from the date of opening of the first offer of securities under that prospectus, and in respect of a second or subsequent offer of such securities issued during the period of validity of that prospectus, no further prospectus is required.

(2) A company filing a shelf prospectus shall be required to file information memorandum containing all material facts relating to new charges created, changes in the financial position of the company as have occurred between the first offer of securities or the previous offer of securities and the succeeding offer of securities and such other changes as may be prescribed, with the Registrar within the prescribed time, prior to the issue of a second or subsequent offer of securities under the shelf prospectus:

Provided that where a company or any other person has received applications for the allotment of securities along with advance payments of subscription before the making of any such change, the company or other person shall intimate the changes to such applicants and if they express a desire to withdraw their application, the company or other person shall refund all the monies received as subscription within fifteen days thereof.

(3) Where an information memorandum is filed, every time an offer of securities is made under sub-section (2), such memorandum together with the shelf prospectus shall be deemed to be a prospectus.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section, the expression "shelf prospectus" means a prospectus in respect of which the securities or class of securities included therein are issued for subscription in one or more issues over a certain period without the issue of a further prospectus.

Section 32: Red herring pr0spectus (old section 60B)

32. (1) a company proposing to make an offer of securities may issue a red herring prospectus prior to the issue of a prospectus.

(2) A company proposing to issue a red herring prospectus under sub-section (1) shall file it with the Registrar at least three days prior to the opening of the subscription list and the offer.

(3) A red herring prospectus shall carry the same obligations as are applicable to a prospectus and any variation between the red herring prospectus and a prospectus shall be highlighted as variations in the prospectus.

(4) Upon the closing of the offer of securities under this section, the prospectus stating therein the total capital raised, whether by way of debt or share capital, and the closing price of the securities and any other details as are not included in the red herring prospectus shall be filed with the Registrar and the Securities and Exchange Board.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section, the expression "red herring prospectus" means a prospectus which does not include complete particulars of the quantum or price of the securities included therein.

Section 33: Issue of application forms for securities [except sub section (3) which talks about penalty provisions] (old section 56)

33. (1) No form of application for the purchase of any of the securities of a company shall be issued unless such form is accompanied by an abridged prospectus: 

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply if it is shown that the form of application was issued—

(a) in connection with a bona fide invitation to a person to enter into an underwriting agreement with respect to such securities; or

(b) in relation to securities which were not offered to the public.

(2) A copy of the prospectus shall, on a request being made by any person before the closing of the subscription list and the offer, be furnished to him.

(3) If a company makes any default in complying with the provisions of this section, it shall be liable to a penalty of fifty thousand rupees for each default.

• Section 34: Criminal liability for misstatement in prospectus (old section 63)

34. Where a prospectus, issued, circulated or distributed under this Chapter, includes any statement which is untrue or misleading in form or context in which it is included or where any inclusion or omission of any matter is likely to mislead, every person who authorises the issue of such prospectus shall be liable under section 447: Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a person if he proves that such statement or omission was immaterial or that he had reasonable grounds to believe, and did up to the time of issue of the prospectus believe, that the statement was true or the inclusion or omission was necessary.

Section 35: Civil liability for misstatement in prospectus [except clause (e) of sub section (1)] (old section 62)

35. (1) where a person has subscribed for securities of a company acting on any statement included, or the inclusion or omission of any matter, in the prospectus which is misleading and has sustained any loss or damage as a consequence thereof, the company and every person who—

(a) is a director of the company at the time of the issue of the prospectus;

(b) has authorised himself to be named and is named in the prospectus as a director of the company, or has agreed to become such director, either immediately or after an interval of time;

(c) is a promoter of the company;

(d) has authorised the issue of the prospectus; and

(e) is an expert referred to in sub-section (5) of section 26, shall, without prejudice to any punishment to which any person may be liable under section 36, be liable to pay compensation to every person who has sustained such loss or damage.

(2) No person shall be liable under sub-section (1), if he proves—

(a) that, having consented to become a director of the company, he withdrew his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and that it was issued without his authority or consent; or

(b) that the prospectus was issued without his knowledge or consent, and that on becoming aware of its issue, he forthwith gave a reasonable public notice that it was issued without his knowledge or consent.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, where it is proved that a prospectus has been issued with intent to defraud the applicants for the securities of a company or any other person or for any fraudulent purpose, every person referred to in subsection (1) shall be personally responsible, without any limitation of liability, for all or any of the losses or damages that may have been incurred by any person who subscribed to the securities on the basis of such prospectus.

Section 36: Punishment for fraudulently inducing persons to invest money (old section 68)

36. Any person who, either knowingly or recklessly makes any statement, promise or forecast which is false, deceptive or misleading, or deliberately conceals any material facts, to induce another person to enter into, or to offer to enter into,—

(a) any agreement for, or with a view to, acquiring, disposing of, subscribing for, or underwriting securities; or

(b) any agreement, the purpose or the pretended purpose of which is to secure a profit to any of the parties from the yield of securities or by reference to fluctuations in the value of securities; or

(c) any agreement for, or with a view to obtaining credit facilities from any bank or financial institution, shall be liable for action under section 447

Section 37: Action to be taken by affected persons (new provisions)

37. A suit may be filed or any other action may be taken under section 34 or section 35 or section 36 by any person, group of persons or any association of persons affected by any misleading statement or the inclusion or omission of any matter in the prospectus.

Section 38: Punishment for personation for acquisition etc of Securities (old Sec 68A)

38. (1) any person who—

(a) makes or abets making of an application in a fictitious name to a company for acquiring, or subscribing for, its securities; or

(b) makes or abets making of multiple applications to a company in different names or in different combinations of his name or surname for acquiring or subscribing for its securities; or

(c) otherwise induces directly or indirectly a company to allot, or register any transfer of, securities to him, or to any other person in a fictitious name, shall be liable for action under section 447.

(2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall be prominently reproduced in every prospectus issued by a company and in every form of application for securities.

(3) Where a person has been convicted under this section, the Court may also order disgorgement of gain, if any, made by, and seizure and disposal of the securities in possession of, such person.

(4) The amount received through disgorgement or disposal of securities under subsection (3) shall be credited to the Investor Education and Protection Fund.

Section 39: Allotment of Securities by company [except sub section (4)] (old section 69, 75)

39. (1) No allotment of any securities of a company offered to the public for subscription shall be made unless the amount stated in the prospectus as the minimum amount has been subscribed and the sums payable on application for the amount so stated have been paid to and received by the company by cheque or other instrument.

(2) The amount payable on application on every security shall not be less than five per cent of the nominal amount of the security or such other percentage or amount, as may be specified by the Securities and Exchange Board by making regulations in this behalf.

(3) If the stated minimum amount has not been subscribed and the sum payable on application is not received within a period of thirty days from the date of issue of the prospectus, or such other period as may be specified by the Securities and Exchange Board, the amount received under sub-section (1) shall be returned within such time and manner as may be prescribed.

(4) Whenever a company having a share capital makes any allotment of securities, it shall file with the Registrar a return of allotment in such manner as may be prescribed.

(5) In case of any default under sub-section (3) or sub-section (4), the company and its officer who is in default shall be liable to a penalty, for each default, of one thousand rupees for each day during which such default continues or one lakh rupees, whichever is less.

Section 40: securities to be dealt with in stock exchanges [except sub section (6) which mentions about commission payments] (old section 73 and 76)

40. (1) Every company making public offer shall, before making such offer, make an application to one or more recognised stock exchange or exchanges and obtain permission for the securities to be dealt with in such stock exchange or exchanges.

(2) Where a prospectus states that an application under sub-section (1) has been made, such prospectus shall also state the name or names of the stock exchange in which the securities shall be dealt with.

(3) All monies received on application from the public for subscription to the securities shall be kept in a separate bank account in a scheduled bank and shall not be utilised for any purpose other than—

(a) for adjustment against allotment of securities where the securities have been permitted to be dealt with in the stock exchange or stock exchanges specified in the prospectus; or

(b) for the repayment of monies within the time specified by the Securities and Exchange Board, received from applicants in pursuance of the prospectus, where the company is for any other reason unable to allot securities.

(4) Any condition purporting to require or bind any applicant for securities to waive compliance with any of the requirements of this section shall be void.

(5) If a default is made in complying with the provisions of this section, the company shall be punishable with a fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to fifty lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees, or with both.

(6) A company may pay commission to any person in connection with the subscription to its securities subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.

Section 44: Nature of shares or debentures (old section 82)

44. The shares or debentures or other interest of any member in a company shall be movable property transferable in the manner provided by the articles of the company.

Section 45: Numbering of shares (old Sec 83)

45. Every share in a company having a share capital shall be distinguished by its distinctive number, Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a share held by a person whose name is entered as holder of beneficial interest in such share in the records of a depository.

Section 49: Calls on shares of same class to be made on uniform basis (old section 91)

49. Where any calls for further share capital are made on the shares of a class, such calls shall be made on a uniform basis on all shares falling under that class.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section, shares of the same nominal value on which different amounts have been paid-up shall not be deemed to fall under the same class.

Section 50: Company to accept unpaid share capital, although not called up (old section 92)

50. (1) A company may, if so authorised by its articles, accept from any member, the whole or a part of the amount remaining unpaid on any shares held by him, even if no part of that amount has been called up.

(2) A member of the company limited by shares shall not be entitled to any voting rights in respect of the amount paid by him under sub-section (1) until that amount has been called up.

Section 51: Payment of dividend in proportion to amount paid up (old section 93)

51. A company may, if so authorised by its articles, pay dividends in proportion to the amount paid-up on each share.

Section 57: Punishment for personation of shareholder (old Sec 116)

57. If any person deceitfully personates as an owner of any security or interest in a company, or of any share warrant or coupon issued in pursuance of this Act, and thereby obtains or attempts to obtain any such security or interest or any such share warrant or coupon, or receives or attempts to receive any money due to any such owner, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees

Section 58: Refusal of registration and appeal against refusal (old section 111 and 111A)

58. (1) If a private company limited by shares refuses, whether in pursuance of any power of the company under its articles or otherwise, to register the transfer of, or the transmission by operation of law of the right to, any securities or interest of a member in the company, it shall within a period of thirty days from the date on which the instrument of transfer, or the intimation of such transmission, as the case may be, was delivered to the company, send notice of the refusal to the transferor and the transferee or to the person giving intimation of such transmission, as the case may be, giving reasons for such refusal.

(2) Without prejudice to sub-section (1), the securities or other interest of any member in a public company shall be freely transferable: Provided that any contract or arrangement between two or more persons in respect of transfer of securities shall be enforceable as a contract.

(3) The transferee may appeal to the Tribunal against the refusal within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of the notice or in case no notice has been sent by the company, within a period of sixty days from the date on which the instrument of transfer or the intimation of transmission, as the case may be, was delivered to the company.

(4) If a public company without sufficient cause refuses to register the transfer of securities within a period of thirty days from the date on which the instrument of transfer or the intimation of transmission, as the case may be, is delivered to the company, the transferee may, within a period of sixty days of such refusal or where no intimation has been received from the company, within ninety days of the delivery of the instrument of transfer or intimation of transmission, appeal to the Tribunal.

(5) The Tribunal, while dealing with an appeal made under sub-section (3) or subsection (4), may, after hearing the parties, either dismiss the appeal, or by order—

(a) direct that the transfer or transmission shall be registered by the company and the company shall comply with such order within a period of ten days of the receipt of the order; or

(b) direct rectification of the register and also direct the company to pay damages, if any, sustained by any party aggrieved.

(6) If a person contravenes the order of the Tribunal under this section, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees

Section 59: Rectification of register of members (old section 111 and 111A)

59. (1) if the name of any person is, without sufficient cause, entered in the register of members of a company, or after having been entered in the register, is, without sufficient cause, omitted therefrom, or if a default is made, or unnecessary delay takes place in entering in the register, the fact of any person having become or ceased to be a member, the person aggrieved, or any member of the company, or the company may appeal in such form as may be prescribed, to the Tribunal, or to a competent court outside India, specified by the Central Government by notification, in respect of foreign members or debenture holders residing outside India, for rectification of the register.

(2) The Tribunal may, after hearing the parties to the appeal under sub-section (1) by order, either dismiss the appeal or direct that the transfer or transmission shall be registered by the company within a period of ten days of the receipt of the order or direct rectification of the records of the depository or the register and in the latter case, direct the company to pay damages, if any, sustained by the party aggrieved.

(3) The provisions of this section shall not restrict the right of a holder of securities, to transfer such securities and any person acquiring such securities shall be entitled to voting rights unless the voting rights have been suspended by an order of the Tribunal.

(4) Where the transfer of securities is in contravention of any of the provisions of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 or this Act or any other law for the time being in force, the Tribunal may, on an application made by the depository, company, depository participant, the holder of the securities or the Securities and Exchange Board, direct any company or a depository to set right the contravention and rectify its register or records concerned.

(5) If any default is made in complying with the order of the Tribunal under this section, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees, or with both.

Section 60: Publication of authorised, subscribed and paid up capital (old section 148)

60. (1) Where any notice, advertisement or other official publication, or any business letter, billhead or letter paper of a company contains a statement of the amount of the authorised capital of the company, such notice, advertisement or other official publication, or such letter, billhead or letter paper shall also contain a statement, in an equally prominent position and in equally conspicuous characters, of the amount of the capital which has been subscribed and the amount paid-up.

(2) If any default is made in complying with the requirements of sub-section (1), the company shall be liable to pay a penalty of ten thousand rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to pay a penalty of five thousand rupees, for each default.

Section 65: Unlimited Company to provide for reserve share capital on re-registration (old Sec 98)

65. An unlimited company having a share capital may, by a resolution for registration as a limited company under this Act, do either or both of the following things, namely—

(a) increase the nominal amount of its share capital by increasing the nominal amount of each of its shares, subject to the condition that no part of the increased capital shall be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up;

(b) provide that a specified portion of its uncalled share capital shall not be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up.

Section 69: Transfer of certain sums to capital redemption reserve account (old section 77AA)

69. (1) where a company purchases its own shares out of free reserves or securities premium account, a sum equal to the nominal value of the shares so purchased shall be transferred to the capital redemption reserve account and details of such transfer shall be disclosed in the balance sheet.

(2) The capital redemption reserve account may be applied by the company, in paying up unissued shares of the company to be issued to members of the company as fully paid bonus shares.

Section 70: Prohibition for Buy Back in certain circumstances [except sub section (2)] (old section 77B)

70. (1) No company shall directly or indirectly purchase its own shares or other specified securities—

(a) through any subsidiary company including its own subsidiary companies;

(b) through any investment company or group of investment companies; or

(c) if a default, is made by the company, in the repayment of deposits accepted either before or after the commencement of this Act, interest payment thereon, redemption of debentures or preference shares or payment of dividend to any shareholder, or repayment of any term loan or interest payable thereon to any financial institution or banking company:

Provided that the buy-back is not prohibited, if the default is remedied and a period of three years has lapsed after such default ceased to subsist.

(2) No company shall, directly or indirectly, purchase its own shares or other specified securities in case such company has not complied with the provisions of sections 92, 123, 127 and section 129.

• Section 86: Punishment for contravention of Chapter V relating to acceptance of deposits by companies (old section 142)

86. If any company contravenes any provision of this Chapter, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to ten lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

Section 91: Power to close register of members or debenture holders or other security holders (old Sec 154)

91. (1) A company may close the register of members or the register of debenture holders or the register of other security holders for any period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate forty-five days in each year, but not exceeding thirty days at any one time, subject to giving of previous notice of at least seven days or such lesser period as may be specified by Securities and Exchange Board for listed companies or the companies which intend to get their securities listed, in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) If the register of members or of debenture-holders or of other security holders is closed without giving the notice as provided in sub-section (1), or after giving shorter notice than that so provided, or for a continuous or an aggregate period in excess of the limits specified in that sub-section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a penalty of five thousand rupees for every day subject to a maximum of one lakh rupees during which the register is kept closed.

Section 100: Calling of extra ordinary general meeting [except sub section (6) relating to reasonable expenses incurred by the requisitionists] (old section 169)

100. (1) The Board may, whenever it deems fit, call an extraordinary general meeting of the company.

(2) The Board shall, at the requisition made by,—

(a) in the case of a company having a share capital, such number of members who hold, on the date of the receipt of the requisition, not less than one-tenth of such of the paid-up share capital of the company as on that date carries the right of voting;

(b) in the case of a company not having a share capital, such number of members who have, on the date of receipt of the requisition, not less than one-tenth of the total voting power of all the members having on the said date a right to vote, call an extraordinary general meeting of the company within the period specified in subsection (4).

 (3) The requisition made under sub-section (2) shall set out the matters for the consideration of which the meeting is to be called and shall be signed by the requisitionists and sent to the registered office of the company.

(4) If the Board does not, within twenty-one days from the date of receipt of a valid requisition in regard to any matter, proceed to call a meeting for the consideration of that matter on a day not later than forty-five days from the date of receipt of such requisition, the meeting may be called and held by the requisitionists themselves within a period of three months from the date of the requisition.

(5) A meeting under sub-section (4) by the requisitionists shall be called and held in the same manner in which the meeting is called and held by the Board.

(6) Any reasonable expenses incurred by the requisitionists in calling a meeting under sub-section (4) shall be reimbursed to the requisitionists by the company and the sums so paid shall be deducted from any fee or other remuneration under section 197 payable to such of the directors who were in default in calling the meeting.

Section 102: Statement to be annexed with notice (old section 173)

102. (1) A statement setting out the following material facts concerning each item of special business to be transacted at a general meeting, shall be annexed to the notice calling such meeting, namely:—

(a) the nature of concern or interest, financial or otherwise, if any, in respect of each items of—

(i) every director and the manager, if any;

(ii) every other key managerial personnel; and

(iii) relatives of the persons mentioned in sub-clauses (i) and (ii);

(b) any other information and facts that may enable members to understand the meaning, scope and implications of the items of business and to take decision thereon.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1),—

(a) in the case of an annual general meeting, all business to be transacted thereat shall be deemed special, other than—

(i) the consideration of financial statements and the reports of the Board of Directors and auditors;

(ii) the declaration of any dividend;

(iii) the appointment of directors in place of those retiring;

(iv) the appointment of, and the fixing of the remuneration of, the auditors;

(b) in the case of any other meeting, all business shall be deemed to be special: Provided that where any item of special business to be transacted at a meeting of the company relates to or affects any other company, the extent of shareholding interest in that other company of every promoter, director, manager, if any, and of every other key managerial personnel of the first mentioned company shall, if the extent of such shareholding is not less than two per cent of the paid-up share capital of that company, also be set out in the statement.

(3) Where any item of business refers to any document, which is to be considered at the meeting, the time and place where such document can be inspected shall be specified in the statement under sub-section (1).

(4) Where as a result of the non-disclosure or insufficient disclosure in any statement referred to in sub-section (1), being made by a promoter, director, manager, if any, or other key managerial personnel, any benefit which accrues to such promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel or their relatives, either directly or indirectly, the promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel, as the case may be, shall hold such benefit in trust for the company, and shall, without prejudice to any other action being taken against him under this Act or under any other law for the time being in force, be liable to compensate the company to the extent of the benefit received by him.

(5) If any default is made in complying with the provisions of this section, every promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees or five times the amount of benefit accruing to the promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel or any of his relatives, whichever is more.

• Section 103: Quorum for meetings (old section 174)

103. (1) unless the articles of the company provide for a larger number,—

(a) in case of a public company,—

(i) five members personally present if the number of members as on the date of meeting is not more than one thousand;

(ii) fifteen members personally present if the number of members as on the date of meeting is more than one thousand but up to five thousand;

(iii) thirty members personally present if the number of members as on the date of the meeting exceeds five thousand;

(b) in the case of a private company, two members personally present, shall be the quorum for a meeting of the company.

(2) If the quorum is not present within half-an-hour from the time appointed for holding a meeting of the company—

(a) the meeting shall stand adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and place, or to such other date and such other time and place as the Board may determine; or

(b) the meeting, if called by requisitionists under section 100, shall stand cancelled: Provided that in case of an adjourned meeting or of a change of day, time or place of meeting under clause (a), the company shall give not less than three days notice to the members either individually or by publishing an advertisement in the newspapers (one in English and one in vernacular language) which is in circulation at the place where the registered office of the company is situated.

(3) If at the adjourned meeting also, a quorum is not present within half-an-hour from the time appointed for holding meeting, the members present shall be the quorum.

• Section 104: Chairman of meetings (old Sec 175)

104. (1) unless the articles of the company otherwise provide, the members personally present at the meeting shall elect one of themselves to be the Chairman thereof on a show of hands.

(2) If a poll is demanded on the election of the Chairman, it shall be taken forthwith in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the Chairman elected on a show of hands under sub-section (1) shall continue to be the Chairman of the meeting until some other person is elected as Chairman as a result of the poll, and such other person shall be the Chairman for the rest of the meeting.

Section 105: Proxies [except 3rd and 4th proviso of sub section (1) and sub section (7)] (old section 176)

105. (1) Any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company shall be entitled to appoint another person as a proxy to attend and vote at the meeting on his behalf: Provided that a proxy shall not have the right to speak at such meeting and shall not be entitled to vote except on a poll: Provided further that, unless the articles of a company otherwise provide, this subsection shall not apply in the case of a company not having a share capital: Provided also that the Central Government may prescribe a class or classes of companies whose members shall not be entitled to appoint another person as a proxy: Provided also that a person appointed as proxy shall act on behalf of such member or number of members not exceeding fifty and such number of shares as may be prescribed.

(2) In every notice calling a meeting of a company which has a share capital, or the articles of which provide for voting by proxy at the meeting, there shall appear with reasonable prominence a statement that a member entitled to attend and vote is entitled to appoint a proxy, or, where that is allowed, one or more proxies, to attend and vote instead of himself, and that a proxy need not be a member.

(3) If default is made in complying with sub-section (2), every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.

(4) Any provision contained in the articles of a company which specifies or requires a longer period than forty-eight hours before a meeting of the company, for depositing with the company or any other person any instrument appointing a proxy or any other document necessary to show the validity or otherwise relating to the appointment of a proxy in order that the appointment may be effective at such meeting, shall have effect as if a period of forty-eight hours had been specified in or required by such provision for such deposit.

(5) If for the purpose of any meeting of a company, invitations to appoint as proxy a person or one of a number of persons specified in the invitations are issued at the company’s expense to any member entitled to have a notice of the meeting sent to him and to vote thereat by proxy, every officer of the company who knowingly issues the invitations as aforesaid or wilfully authorises or permits their issue shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees: Provided that an officer shall not be punishable under this sub-section by reason only of the issue to a member at his request in writing of a form of appointment naming the proxy, or of a list of persons willing to act as proxies, if the form or list is available on request in writing to every member entitled to vote at the meeting by proxy.

(6) The instrument appointing a proxy shall— (a) be in writing; and (b) be signed by the appointer or his attorney duly authorised in writing or, if the appointer is a body corporate, be under its seal or be signed by an officer or an attorney duly authorised by it.

(7) An instrument appointing a proxy, if in the form as may be prescribed, shall not be questioned on the ground that it fails to comply with any special requirements specified for such instrument by the articles of a company.

(8) Every member entitled to vote at a meeting of the company, or on any resolution to be moved thereat, shall be entitled during the period beginning twenty-four hours before the time fixed for the commencement of the meeting and ending with the conclusion of the meeting, to inspect the proxies lodged, at any time during the business hours of the company, provided not less than three days’ notice in writing of the intention so to inspect is given to the company.

Section 106: Restriction on voting rights (old section 181, 182, 183)

106. (1) notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the articles of a company may provide that no member shall exercise any voting right in respect of any shares registered in his name on which any calls or other sums presently payable by him have not been paid, or in regard to which the company has exercised any right of lien.

(2) A company shall not, except on the grounds specified in sub-section (1), prohibit any member from exercising his voting right on any other ground.

(3) On a poll taken at a meeting of a company, a member entitled to more than one vote, or his proxy, where allowed, or other person entitled to vote for him, as the case may be, need not, if he votes, use all his votes or cast in the same way all the votes he uses.

Section 107: Voting by show of hands (old section 177,178)

107. (1) At any general meeting, a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall, unless a poll is demanded under section 109 or the voting is carried out electronically, be decided on a show of hands.

(2) A declaration by the Chairman of the meeting of the passing of a resolution or otherwise by show of hands under sub-section (1) and an entry to that effect in the books containing the minutes of the meeting of the company shall be conclusive evidence of the fact of passing of such resolution or otherwise.

Section 111: Circulation of Members’ resolution (old Sec 188)

111. (1) A company shall, on requisition in writing of such number of members, as required in section 100, —

(a) give notice to members of any resolution which may properly be moved and is intended to be moved at a meeting; and

(b) circulate to members any statement with respect to the matters referred to in proposed resolution or business to be dealt with at that meeting.

(2) A company shall not be bound under this section to give notice of any resolution or to circulate any statement unless—

(a) a copy of the requisition signed by the requisitionists (or two or more copies which, between them, contain the signatures of all the requisitionists) is deposited at the registered office of the company,—

(i) in the case of a requisition requiring notice of a resolution, not less than six weeks before the meeting;

(ii) in the case of any other requisition, not less than two weeks before the meeting; and

(b) there is deposited or tendered with the requisition, a sum reasonably sufficient to meet the company’s expenses in giving effect thereto: Provided that if, after a copy of a requisition requiring notice of a resolution has been deposited at the registered office of the company, an annual general meeting is called on a date within six weeks after the copy has been deposited, the copy, although not deposited within the time required by this sub-section, shall be deemed to have been properly deposited for the purposes thereof.

(3) The company shall not be bound to circulate any statement as required by clause (b) of sub-section (1), if on the application either of the company or of any other person who claims to be aggrieved, the Central Government, by order, declares that the rights conferred by this section are being abused to secure needless publicity for defamatory matter.

(4) An order made under sub-section (3) may also direct that the cost incurred by the company by virtue of this section shall be paid to the company by the requisitionists, notwithstanding that they are not parties to the application.

(5) If any default is made in complying with the provisions of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five thousand rupees.

Section 112: Representation of the President and Governors in meetings (old section 187A)

112. (1) The President of India or the Governor of a State, if he is a member of a company, may appoint such person as he thinks fit to act as his representative at any meeting of the company or at any meeting of any class of members of the company.

(2) A person appointed to act under sub-section (1) shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be a member of such a company and shall be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers, including the right to vote by proxy and postal ballot, as the President or, as the case may be, the Governor could exercise as a member of the company.

Section 113: Representation of Corporations at meeting of companies and of creditors [except sub clause (b) of sub section (1) (old section 187)

113. (1) A body corporate, whether a company within the meaning of this Act or not, may, —

(a) if it is a member of a company within the meaning of this Act, by resolution of its Board of Directors or other governing body, authorise such person as it thinks fit to act as its representative at any meeting of the company, or at any meeting of any class of members of the company;

(b) if it is a creditor, including a holder of debentures, of a company within the meaning of this Act, by resolution of its directors or other governing body, authorise such person as it thinks fit to act as its representative at any meeting of any creditors of the company held in pursuance of this Act or of any rules made thereunder, or in pursuance of the provisions contained in any debenture or trust deed, as the case may be.

(2) A person authorised by resolution under sub-section (1) shall be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers, including the right to vote by proxy and by postal ballot, on behalf of the body corporate which he represents as that body could exercise if it were an individual member, creditor or holder of debentures of the company.

Section 114: Ordinary & Special resolutions (old section 189)

114. (1) A resolution shall be an ordinary resolution if the notice required under this Act has been duly given and it is required to be passed by the votes cast, whether on a show of hands, or electronically or on a poll, as the case may be, in favour of the resolution, including the casting vote, if any, of the Chairman, by members who, being entitled so to do, vote in person, or where proxies are allowed, by proxy or by postal ballot, exceed the votes, if any, cast against the resolution by members, so entitled and voting.

(2) A resolution shall be a special resolution when—

(a) the intention to propose the resolution as a special resolution has been duly specified in the notice calling the general meeting or other intimation given to the members of the resolution;

(b) the notice required under this Act has been duly given; and

(c) the votes cast in favour of the resolution, whether on a show of hands, or electronically or on a poll, as the case may be, by members who, being entitled so to do, vote in person or by proxy or by postal ballot, are required to be not less than three times the number of the votes, if any, cast against the resolution by members so entitled and voting.

Section 116: Resolutions passed at adjourned meeting (old Sec 191)

116. Where a resolution is passed at an adjourned meeting of— (a) a company; or (b) the holders of any class of shares in a company; or (c) the Board of Directors of a company, the resolution shall, for all purposes, be treated as having been passed on the date on which it was in fact passed, and shall not be deemed to have been passed on any earlier date.

Section 127: Punishment for failure to distribute dividends within 30 days (old section 207)

127. Where a dividend has been declared by a company but has not been paid or the warrant in respect thereof has not been posted within thirty days from the date of declaration to any shareholder entitled to the payment of the dividend, every director of the company shall, if he is knowingly a party to the default, be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years and with fine which shall not be less than one thousand rupees for every day during which such default continues and the company shall be liable to pay simple interest at the rate of eighteen per cent. per annum during the period for which such default continues: Provided that no offence under this section shall be deemed to have been committed:—

(a) where the dividend could not be paid by reason of the operation of any law;

(b) where a shareholder has given directions to the company regarding the payment of the dividend and those directions cannot be complied with and the same has been communicated to him;

(c) where there is a dispute regarding the right to receive the dividend;

(d) where the dividend has been lawfully adjusted by the company against any sum due to it from the shareholder; or

(e) where, for any other reason, the failure to pay the dividend or to post the warrant within the period under this section was not due to any default on the part of the company.

• Section 133: Central government to prescribe Accounting Standards (old section 211)

133. The Central Government may prescribe the standards of accounting or any addendum thereto, as recommended by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, constituted under section 3 of the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949, in consultation with and after examination of the recommendations made by the National Financial Reporting Authority.

• Section 161: Appointment of Additional Director, Alternate Director and Nominee Director [except sub section (2) (old section 260, 262, 313)

161. (1) The articles of a company may confer on its Board of Directors the power to appoint any person, other than a person who fails to get appointed as a director in a general meeting, as an additional director at any time who shall hold office up to the date of the next annual general meeting or the last date on which the annual general meeting should have been held, whichever is earlier.

(2) The Board of Directors of a company may, if so authorised by its articles or by a resolution passed by the company in general meeting, appoint a person, not being a person holding any alternate directorship for any other director in the company, to act as an alternate director for a director during his absence for a period of not less than three months from India: Provided that no person shall be appointed as an alternate director for an independent director unless he is qualified to be appointed as an independent director under the provisions of this Act: Provided further that an alternate director shall not hold office for a period longer than that permissible to the director in whose place he has been appointed and shall vacate the office if and when the director in whose place he has been appointed returns to India: Provided also that if the term of office of the original director is determined before he so returns to India, any provision for the automatic re-appointment of retiring directors in default of another appointment shall apply to the original, and not to the alternate director.

(3) Subject to the articles of a company, the Board may appoint any person as a director nominated by any institution in pursuance of the provisions of any law for the time being in force or of any agreement or by the Central Government or the State Government by virtue of its shareholding in a Government company.

(4) In the case of a public company, if the office of any director appointed by the company in general meeting is vacated before his term of office expires in the normal course, the resulting casual vacancy may, in default of and subject to any regulations in the articles of the company, be filled by the Board of Directors at a meeting of the Board: Provided that any person so appointed shall hold office only up to the date up to which the director in whose place he is appointed would have held office if it had not been vacated.

• Section 162: Appointment of directors to be voted individually (old section 263)

162. (1) At a general meeting of a company, a motion for the appointment of two or more persons as directors of the company by a single resolution shall not be moved unless a proposal to move such a motion has first been agreed to at the meeting without any vote being cast against it.

(2) A resolution moved in contravention of sub-section (1) shall be void, whether or not any objection was taken when it was moved.

(3) A motion for approving a person for appointment, or for nominating a person for appointment as a director, shall be treated as a motion for his appointment.

Section 163: Option to adopt principle of proportional representation for appointment of directors (old section 265)

163. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the articles of a company may provide for the appointment of not less than two-thirds of the total number of the directors of a company in accordance with the principle of proportional representation, whether by the single transferable vote or by a system of cumulative voting or otherwise and such appointments may be made once in every three years and casual vacancies of such directors shall be filled as provided in sub-section (4) of section 161.

Section 176: Defects in appointment of Directors not to invalidate actions taken (old section 290)

176. No act done by a person as a director shall be deemed to be invalid, notwithstanding that it was subsequently noticed that his appointment was invalid by reason of any defect or disqualification or had terminated by virtue of any provision contained in this Act or in the articles of the company: Provided that nothing in this section shall be deemed to give validity to any act done by the director after his appointment has been noticed by the company to be invalid or to have terminated.

Section 180: Restriction on powers of board (old section 293)

180. (1) The Board of Directors of a company shall exercise the following powers only with the consent of the company by a special resolution, namely: —

(a) to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of the whole or substantially the whole of the undertaking of the company or where the company owns more than one undertaking, of the whole or substantially the whole of any of such undertakings.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, —

(i) “undertaking” shall mean an undertaking in which the investment of the company exceeds twenty per cent of its net worth as per the audited balance sheet of the preceding financial year or an undertaking which generates twenty per cent of the total income of the company during the previous financial year;

(ii) the expression “substantially the whole of the undertaking” in any financial year shall mean twenty per cent. or more of the value of the undertaking as per the audited balance sheet of the preceding financial year;

(b) to invest otherwise in trust securities the amount of compensation received by it as a result of any merger or amalgamation;

(c) to borrow money, where the money to be borrowed, together with the money already borrowed by the company will exceed aggregate of its paid-up share capital and free reserves, apart from temporary loans obtained from the company’s bankers in the ordinary course of business: Provided that the acceptance by a banking company, in the ordinary course of its business, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise, and withdrawable by cheque, draft, order or otherwise, shall not be deemed to be a borrowing of monies by the banking company within the meaning of this clause.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, the expression “temporary loans” means loans repayable on demand or within six months from the date of the loan such as short-term, cash credit arrangements, the discounting of bills and the issue of other short-term loans of a seasonal character, but does not include loans raised for the purpose of financial expenditure of a capital nature; (d) to remit, or give time for the repayment of, any debt due from a director.

(2) Every special resolution passed by the company in general meeting in relation to the exercise of the powers referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall specify the total amount up to which monies may be borrowed by the Board of Directors.

(3) Nothing contained in clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall affect—

(a) the title of a buyer or other person who buys or takes on lease any property, investment or undertaking as is referred to in that clause, in good faith; or

(b) the sale or lease of any property of the company where the ordinary business of the company consists of, or comprises, such selling or leasing.

(4) Any special resolution passed by the company consenting to the transaction as is referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) may stipulate such conditions as may be specified in such resolution, including conditions regarding the use, disposal or investment of the sale proceeds which may result from the transactions: Provided that this sub-section shall not be deemed to authorise the company to effect any reduction in its capital except in accordance with the provisions contained in this Act.

(5) No debt incurred by the company in excess of the limit imposed by clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall be valid or effectual, unless the lender proves that he advanced the loan in good faith and without knowledge that the limit imposed by that clause had been exceeded.

Section 181: Company to contribute to bonafide and charitable funds etc (old section 293)

181. The Board of Directors of a company may contribute to bona fide charitable and other funds: Provided that prior permission of the company in general meeting shall be required for such contribution in case any amount the aggregate of which, in any financial year, exceed five per cent of its average net profits for the three immediately preceding financial years.

Section 182: Prohibitions and Restrictions regarding political contributions (old section 293A)

182. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, a company, other than a Government company and a company which has been in existence for less than three financial years, may contribute any amount directly or indirectly to any political party: Provided that the amount referred to in sub-section (1) or, as the case may be, the aggregate of the amount which may be so contributed by the company in any financial year shall not exceed seven and a half per cent. of its average net profits during the three immediately preceding financial years: Provided further that no such contribution shall be made by a company unless a resolution authorising the making of such contribution is passed at a meeting of the Board of Directors and such resolution shall, subject to the other provisions of this section, be deemed to be justification in law for the making and the acceptance of the contribution authorised by it.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1),—

(a) a donation or subscription or payment caused to be given by a company on its behalf or on its account to a person who, to its knowledge, is carrying on any activity which, at the time at which such donation or subscription or payment was given or made, can reasonably be regarded as likely to affect public support for a Company to political party shall also be deemed to be contribution of the amount of such donation, subscription or payment to such person for a political purpose;

(b) the amount of expenditure incurred, directly or indirectly, by a company on an advertisement in any publication, being a publication in the nature of a souvenir, brochure, tract, pamphlet or the like, shall also be deemed,—

(i) where such publication is by or on behalf of a political party, to be a contribution of such amount to such political party, and

(ii) where such publication is not by or on behalf of, but for the advantage of a political party, to be a contribution for a political purpose.

(3) Every company shall disclose in its profit and loss account any amount or amounts contributed by it to any political party during the financial year to which that account relates, giving particulars of the total amount contributed and the name of the party to which such amount has been contributed.

(4) If a company makes any contribution in contravention of the provisions of this section, the company shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five times the amount so contributed and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months and with fine which may extend to five times the amount so contributed.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section, “political party” means a political party registered under section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

Section 183: Power of Board and other persons to make contributions to national defence fund etc (old section 293B)

183. (1) The Board of Directors of any company or any person or authority exercising the powers of the Board of Directors of a company, or of the company in general meeting, may, notwithstanding anything contained in sections 180, 181 and section 182 or any other provision of this Act or in the memorandum, articles or any other instrument relating to the company, contribute such amount as it thinks fit to the National Defence Fund or any other Fund approved by the Central Government for the purpose of national defence.

(2) Every company shall disclose in its profits and loss accounts the total amount or amounts contributed by it to the Fund referred to in sub-section (1) during the financial year to which the amount relates.

• Section 185: Loan to Directors Etc (old section 295, 296)

185. (1) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, no company shall, directly or indirectly, advance any loan, including any loan represented by a book debt, to any of its directors or to any other person in whom the director is interested or give any guarantee or provide any security in connection with any loan taken by him or such other person: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to— (a) the giving of any loan to a managing or whole-time director— (i) as a part of the conditions of service extended by the company to all its employees; or (ii) pursuant to any scheme approved by the members by a special resolution; or (b) a company which in the ordinary course of its business provides loans or gives guarantees or securities for the due repayment of any loan and in respect of such loans an interest is charged at a rate not less than the bank rate declared by the Reserve Bank of India.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression “to any other person in whom director is interested” means— (a) any director of the lending company, or of a company which is its holding company or any partner or relative of any such director; (b) any firm in which any such director or relative is a partner; (c) any private company of which any such director is a director or member; (d) any body corporate at a general meeting of which not less than twenty five per cent. of the total voting power may be exercised or controlled by any such director, or by two or more such directors, together; or (e) any body corporate, the Board of directors, managing director or manager, whereof is accustomed to act in accordance with the directions or instructions of the Board, or of any director or directors, of the lending company.

(2) If any loan is advanced or a guarantee or security is given or provided in contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1), the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, and the director or the other person to whom any loan is advanced or guarantee or security is given or provided in connection with any loan taken by him or the other person, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, or with both.

Section 192: Restriction on non cash transactions involving directors (new provisions)

192. (1) No company shall enter into an arrangement by which— (a) a director of the company or its holding, subsidiary or associate company or a person connected with him acquires or is to acquire assets for consideration other than cash, from the company; or (b) the company acquires or is to acquire assets for consideration other than cash, from such director or person so connected, unless prior approval for such arrangement is accorded by a resolution of the company in general meeting and if the director or connected person is a director of its holding company, approval under this sub-section shall also be required to be obtained by passing a resolution in general meeting of the holding company.

(2) The notice for approval of the resolution by the company or holding company in general meeting under sub-section (1) shall include the particulars of the arrangement along with the value of the assets involved in such arrangement duly calculated by a registered valuer.

(3) Any arrangement entered into by a company or its holding company in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be voidable at the instance of the company unless— (a) the restitution of any money or other consideration which is the subject matter of the arrangement is no longer possible and the company has been indemnified by any other person for any loss or damage caused to it; or (b) any rights are acquired bona fide for value and without notice of the contravention of the provisions of this section by any other person.

Section 194: Prohibition on forward dealings in securities of company by director or key managerial personnel (new provisions)

194. (1) No director of a company or any of its key managerial personnel shall buy in the company, or in its holding, subsidiary or associate company— (a) a right to call for delivery or a right to make delivery at a specified price and within a specified time, of a specified number of relevant shares or a specified amount of relevant debentures; or (b) a right, as he may elect, to call for delivery or to make delivery at a specified price and within a specified time, of a specified number of relevant shares or a specified amount of relevant debentures.

(2) If a director or any key managerial personnel of the company contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1), such director or key managerial personnel shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.

(3) Where a director or other key managerial personnel acquires any securities in contravention of sub-section (1), he shall, subject to the provisions contained in sub-section (2), be liable to surrender the same to the company and the company shall not register the securities so acquired in his name in the register, and if they are in dematerialised form, it shall inform the depository not to record such acquisition and such securities, in both the cases, shall continue to remain in the names of the transferors.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section, ‘‘relevant shares’’ and ‘‘relevant debentures’’ mean shares and debentures of the company in which the concerned person is a whole-time director or other key managerial personnel or shares and debentures of its holding and subsidiary companies.

• Section 195: Prohibition on insider trading of securities (new provisions)

195. (1) No person including any director or key managerial personnel of a company shall enter into insider trading: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to any communication required in the ordinary course of business or profession or employment or under any law.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,— (a) “insider trading” means— (i) an act of subscribing, buying, selling, dealing or agreeing to subscribe, buy, sell or deal in any securities by any director or key managerial personnel or any other officer of a company either as principal or agent if such director or key managerial personnel or any other officer of the company is reasonably expected to have access to any non-public price sensitive information in respect of securities of company; or (ii) an act of counselling about procuring or communicating directly or indirectly any non-public price-sensitive information to any person; (b) “price-sensitive information” means any information which relates, directly or indirectly, to a company and which if published is likely to materially affect the price of securities of the company.

(2) If any person contravenes the provisions of this section, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five crore rupees or three times the amount of profits made out of insider trading, whichever is higher, or with both.

Section 202: Compensation for loss of office of managing or whole time director or manager (old section 318)

202. (1) A company may make payment to a managing or whole-time director or manager, but not to any other director, by way of compensation for loss of office, or as consideration for retirement from office or in connection with such loss or retirement. (2) No payment shall be made under sub-section (1) in the following cases, namely:— (a) where the director resigns from his office as a result of the reconstruction of the company, or of its amalgamation with any other body corporate or bodies corporate, and is appointed as the managing or whole-time director, manager or other officer of the reconstructed company or of the body corporate resulting from the amalgamation; (b) where the director resigns from his office otherwise than on the reconstruction of the company or its amalgamation as aforesaid; (c) where the office of the director is vacated under sub-section (1) of section 167; (d) where the company is being wound up, whether by an order of the Tribunal or voluntarily, provided the winding up was due to the negligence or default of the director; (e) where the director has been guilty of fraud or breach of trust in relation to, or of gross negligence in or gross mismanagement of, the conduct of the affairs of the company or any subsidiary company or holding company thereof; and (f) where the director has instigated, or has taken part directly or indirectly in bringing about, the termination of his office.

(3) Any payment made to a managing or whole-time director or manager in pursuance of sub-section (1) shall not exceed the remuneration which he would have earned if he had been in office for the remainder of his term or for three years, whichever is shorter, calculated on the basis of the average remuneration actually earned by him during a period of three years immediately preceding the date on which he ceased to hold office, or where he held the office for a lesser period than three years, during such period: Provided that no such payment shall be made to the director in the event of the commencement of the winding up of the company, whether before or at any time within twelve months after, the date on which he ceased to hold office, if the assets of the company on the winding up, after deducting the expenses thereof, are not sufficient to repay to the shareholders the share capital, including the premiums, if any, contributed by them.

(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prohibit the payment to a managing or whole-time director, or manager, of any remuneration for services rendered by him to the company in any other capacity.

• Section 379: Application of Act to Foreign Companies (old section 591)

379. Where not less than fifty per cent. of the paid-up share capital, whether equity or preference or partly equity and partly preference, of a foreign company is held by one or more citizens of India or by one or more companies or bodies corporate incorporated in India, or by one or more citizens of India and one or more companies or bodies corporate incorporated in India, whether singly or in the aggregate, such company shall comply with the provisions of this Chapter and such other provisions of this Act as may be prescribed with regard to the business carried on by it in India as if it were a company incorporated in India.

Section 382: Display of name etc of Foreign Company (old section 595)

382. Every foreign company shall— (a) conspicuously exhibit on the outside of every office or place where it carries on business in India, the name of the company and the country in which it is incorporated, in letters easily legible in English characters, and also in the characters of the language or one of the languages in general use in the locality in which the office or place is situate; (b) cause the name of the company and of the country in which the company is incorporated, to be stated in legible English characters in all business letters, billheads and letter paper, and in all notices, and other official publications of the company; and (c) if the liability of the members of the company is limited, cause notice of that fact— (i) to be stated in every such prospectus issued and in all business letters, bill-heads, letter paper, notices, advertisements and other official publications of the company, in legible English characters; and (ii) to be conspicuously exhibited on the outside of every office or place where it carries on business in India, in legible English characters and also in legible characters of the language or one of the languages in general use in the locality in which the office or place is situate.

Section 383: Service on foreign company (old section 596)

383. Any process, notice, or other document required to be served on a foreign company shall be deemed to be sufficiently served, if addressed to any person whose name and address have been delivered to the Registrar under section 380 and left at, or sent by post to, the address which has been so delivered to the Registrar or by electronic mode.

Section 386: Interpretation for purposes of Chapter XXII relating to companies incorporated outside India [except sub clause (a)] (old section 602)

386. For the purposes of the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, — (a) the expression “certified” means certified in the prescribed manner to be a true copy or a correct translation; (b) the expression “director”, in relation to a foreign company, includes any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the Board of Directors of the company is accustomed to act; and (c) the expression “place of business” includes a share transfer or registration office.

Section 394: Annual reports on Government Companies (old section 619A)

394. (1) Where the Central Government is a member of a Government company, the Central Government shall cause an annual report on the working and affairs of that company to be— (a) prepared within three months of its annual general meeting before which the comments given by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India and the audit report is placed under the proviso to sub-section (6) of section 143; and (b) as soon as may be after such preparation, laid before both Houses of Parliament together with a copy of the audit report and comments upon or supplement to the audit report, made by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

(2) Where in addition to the Central Government, any State Government is also a member of a Government company, that State Government shall cause a copy of the annual report prepared under sub-section (1) to be laid before the House or both Houses of the State Legislature together with a copy of the audit report and the comments upon or supplement to the audit report referred to in sub-section (1).

Section 405: Power of Central Government to direct companies to furnish information or statistics (old section 615)

405. (1) The Central Government may, by order, require companies generally, or any class of companies, or any company, to furnish such information or statistics with regard to their or its constitution or working, and within such time, as may be specified in the order.

(2) Every order under sub-section (1) shall be published in the Official Gazette and may be addressed to companies generally or to any class of companies, in such manner, as the Central Government may think fit and the date of such publication shall be deemed to be the date on which requirement for information or statistics is made on such companies or class of companies, as the case may be.

(3) For the purpose of satisfying itself that any information or statistics furnished by a company or companies in pursuance of any order under sub-section (1) is correct and complete, the Central Government may by order require such company or companies to produce such records or documents in its possession or allow inspection thereof by such officer or furnish such further information as that Government may consider necessary.

(4) If any company fails to comply with an order made under sub-section (1) or subsection (3), or knowingly furnishes any information or statistics which is incorrect or incomplete in any material respect, the company shall be punishable with fine which may extend to twenty-five thousand rupees and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees, or with both.

(5) Where a foreign company carries on business in India, all references to a company in this section shall be deemed to include references to the foreign company in relation, and only in relation, to such business.

• Section 407: Definitions under Chapter XXVII relating to NCLT and NCALT (old section 10FD)

407. In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) “Chairperson” means the Chairperson of the Appellate Tribunal;

(b) “Judicial Member” means a member of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal appointed as such and includes the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be;

(c) “Member” means a member, whether Judicial or Technical of the Tribunal or the

Appellate Tribunal and includes the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be;

(d) “President” means the President of the Tribunal;

(e) “Technical Member” means a member of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal appointed as such.

Section 408: Constitution of NCLT (old section 10FB and 10FC)

408. The Central Government shall, by notification, constitute, with effect from such date as may be specified therein, a Tribunal to be known as the National Company Law Tribunal consisting of a President and such number of Judicial and Technical members, as the Central Government may deem necessary, to be appointed by it by notification, to exercise and discharge such powers and functions as are, or may be, conferred on it by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force.

Section 409: Qualifications of President and Members of Tribunal (old section 10FD)

409. (1) The President shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court for five years.

(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judicial Member unless he— (a) is, or has been, a judge of a High Court; or (b) is, or has been, a District Judge for at least five years; or (c) has, for at least ten years been an advocate of a court.

Explanation.—For the purposes of clause (c), in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law after he become an advocate.

(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Technical Member unless he— (a) has, for at least fifteen years been a member of the Indian Corporate Law Service or Indian Legal Service out of which at least three years shall be in the pay scale of Joint Secretary to the Government of India or equivalent or above in that service; or (b) is, or has been, in practice as a chartered accountant for at least fifteen years; or (c) is, or has been, in practice as a cost accountant for at least fifteen years; or (d) is, or has been, in practice as a company secretary for at least fifteen years; or (e) is a person of proven ability, integrity and standing having special knowledge and experience, of not less than fifteen years, in law, industrial finance, industrial management or administration, industrial reconstruction, investment, accountancy, labour matters, or such other disciplines related to management, conduct of affairs, revival, rehabilitation and winding up of companies; or (f) is, or has been, for at least five years, a presiding officer of a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal constituted under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.

Section 410: Constitution of Appellate Tribunals (old section 10FR)

410. The Central Government shall, by notification, constitute, with effect from such date as may be specified therein, an Appellate Tribunal to be known as the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal consisting of a chairperson and such number of Judicial and Technical Members, not exceeding eleven, as the Central Government may deem fit, to be appointed by it by notification, for hearing appeals against the orders of the Tribunal.

Section 411: Qualifications of Chairperson and Members of Appellate Tribunal (old section 10FR)

411. (1) the chairperson shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of a High Court.

(2) A Judicial Member shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court or is a Judicial Member of the Tribunal for five years.

(3) A Technical Member shall be a person of proven ability, integrity and standing having special knowledge and experience, of not less than twenty-five years, in law, industrial finance, industrial management or administration, industrial reconstruction, investment, accountancy, labour matters, or such other disciplines related to management, conduct of affairs, revival, rehabilitation and winding up of companies.

Section 412: Selection of Members of Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal (old section 10FX)

412. (1) The President of the Tribunal and the chairperson and Judicial Members of the Appellate Tribunal, shall be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

(2) The Members of the Tribunal and the Technical Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be appointed on the recommendation of a Selection Committee consisting of— (a) Chief Justice of India or his nominee—Chairperson; (b) a senior Judge of the Supreme Court or a Chief Justice of High Court— Member; (c) Secretary in the Ministry of Corporate Affairs—Member; (d) Secretary in the Ministry of Law and Justice—Member; and (e) Secretary in the Department of Financial Services in the Ministry of Finance— member.

(3) The Secretary, Ministry of Corporate Affairs shall be the Convener of the Selection Committee.

(4) The Selection Committee shall determine its procedure for recommending persons under sub-section (2).

(5) No appointment of the Members of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal shall be invalid merely by reason of any vacancy or any defect in the constitution of the Selection Committee.

Section 413: Term of office of President, Chairperson and other Members (old section 10FT and 10FE)

413. (1) The President and every other Member of the Tribunal shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office, but shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years.

 (2) A Member of the Tribunal shall hold office as such until he attains,— (a) in the case of the President, the age of sixty-seven years; (b) in the case of any other Member, the age of sixty-five years: Provided that a person who has not completed fifty years of age shall not be eligible for appointment as Member: Provided further that the Member may retain his lien with his parent cadre or Ministry or Department, as the case may be, while holding office as such for a period not exceeding one year.

(3) The chairperson or a Member of the Appellate Tribunal shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office, but shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years.

(4) A Member of the Appellate Tribunal shall hold office as such until he attains,—(a) in the case of the Chairperson, the age of seventy years; (b) in the case of any other Member, the age of sixty-seven years: Provided that a person who has not completed fifty years of age shall not be eligible for appointment as Member: Provided further that the Member may retain his lien with his parent cadre or Ministry or Department, as the case may be, while holding office as such for a period not exceeding one year.

Section 414: Salary, Allowances and other terms and conditions of service of members (old section 10FG, 10FW)

414. The salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of the Members of the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall be such as may be prescribed: Provided that neither the salary and allowances nor the other terms and conditions of service of the Members shall be varied to their disadvantage after their appointment.

• Provisions Pertaining to Chapter XXVIII on Special Courts: Section 439, 443, 444, 445 & 446 (old sections 621, 624, 624A, 624B, 625, 626)

439. (1) Notwithstanding anything in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, every offence under this Act except the offences referred to in sub-section (6) of section 212 shall be deemed to be non-cognizable within the meaning of the said Code.

(2) No court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Act which is alleged to have been committed by any company or any officer thereof, except on the complaint in writing of the Registrar, a shareholder of the company, or of a person authorised by the Central Government in that behalf: Provided that the court may take cognizance of offences relating to issue and transfer of securities and non-payment of dividend, on a complaint in writing, by a person authorised by the Securities and Exchange Board of India: Provided further that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a prosecution by a company of any of its officers.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, where the complainant under sub-section (2) is the Registrar or a person authorised by the Central Government, the presence of such officer before the Court trying the offences shall not be necessary unless the court requires his personal attendance at the trial.

(4) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall not apply to any action taken by the liquidator of a company in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed in respect of any of the matters in Chapter XX or in any other provision of this Act relating to winding up of companies.

Explanation.—the liquidator of a company shall not be deemed to be an officer of the company within the meaning of sub-section (2).

443. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the Central Government may appoint generally, or for any case, or in any case, or for any specified class of cases in any local area, one or more persons, as company prosecutors for the conduct of prosecutions arising out of this Act and the persons so appointed as company prosecutors shall have all the powers and privileges conferred by the Code on Public Prosecutors appointed under section 24 of the Code.

444. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the Central Government may, in any case arising under this Act, direct any company prosecutor or authorise any other person either by name or by virtue of his office, to present an appeal from an order of acquittal passed by any court, other than a High Court, and an appeal presented by such prosecutor or other person shall be deemed to have been validly presented to the appellate court.

445. The provisions of section 250 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 shall apply mutatis mutandis to compensation for accusation without reasonable cause before the Special Court or the Court of Session.

446. The court imposing any fine under this Act may direct that the whole or any part thereof shall be applied in or towards payment of the costs of the proceedings, or in or towards the payment of a reward to the person on whose information the proceedings were instituted.

• Provisions Pertaining to Chapter XXIX-Miscellaneous Section 447 to 453 (pertaining to punishment for fraud, false statement, false evidence etc) (old sections 628, 629, 629A, 630, 631)

447. Without prejudice to any liability including repayment of any debt under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, any person who is found to be guilty of fraud, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine which shall not be less than the amount involved in the fraud, but which may extend to three times the amount involved in the fraud: Provided that where the fraud in question involves public interest, the term of imprisonment shall not be less than three years.

Explanation.—for the purposes of this section—

(i) “fraud” in relation to affairs of a company or any body corporate, includes any act, omission, concealment of any fact or abuse of position committed by any person or any other person with the connivance in any manner, with intent to deceive, to gain undue advantage from, or to injure the interests of, the company or its shareholders or its creditors or any other person, whether or not there is any wrongful gain or wrongful loss; (ii) “wrongful gain” means the gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled; (iii) “wrongful loss” means the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing is legally entitled.

448. Save as otherwise provided in this Act, if in any return, report, certificate, financial statement, prospectus, statement or other document required by, or for, the purposes of any of the provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder, any person makes a statement, —

(a) which is false in any material particulars, knowing it to be false; or

(b) which omits any material fact, knowing it to be material, he shall be liable under section 447.

449. Save as otherwise provided in this Act, if any person intentionally gives false evidence— (a) upon any examination on oath or solemn affirmation, authorised under this Act; or (b) in any affidavit, deposition or solemn affirmation, in or about the winding up of any company under this Act, or otherwise in or about any matter arising under this Act, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to seven years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.

450. If a company or any officer of a company or any other person contravenes any of the provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder, or any condition, limitation or restriction subject to which any approval, sanction, consent, confirmation, recognition, direction or exemption in relation to any matter has been accorded, given or granted, and for which no penalty or punishment is provided elsewhere in this Act, the company and every officer of the company who is in default or such other person shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees, and where the contravention is continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the contravention continues.

451. If a company or an officer of a company commits an offence punishable either with fine or with imprisonment and where the same offence is committed for the second or subsequent occasions within a period of three years, then, that company and every officer thereof who is in default shall be punishable with twice the amount of fine for such offence in addition to any imprisonment provided for that offence.

452. (1) If any officer or employee of a company—

(a) wrongfully obtains possession of any property, including cash of the company; or

(b) having any such property including cash in his possession, wrongfully withholds it or knowingly applies it for the purposes other than those expressed or directed in the articles and authorised by this Act, he shall, on the complaint of the company or of any member or creditor or contributory thereof, be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

(2) The Court trying an offence under sub-section (1) may also order such officer or employee to deliver up or refund, within a time to be fixed by it, any such property or cash wrongfully obtained or wrongfully withheld or knowingly misapplied, the benefits that have been derived from such property or cash or in default, to undergo imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years.

453. If any person or persons trade or carry on business under any name or title, of which the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited” or any contraction or imitation thereof is or are the last word or words, that person or each of those persons shall, unless duly incorporated with limited liability, or unless duly incorporated as a private company with limited liability, as the case may be, punishable with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees but may extend to two thousand rupees for every day for which that name or title has been used.

Section 456: Protection of action taken in good faith (old section 635A)

456. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Government or any officer of the Government or any other person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act or of any rules or orders made thereunder, or in respect of the publication by or under the authority of the Government or such officer, of any report, paper or proceedings.

Section 457: Non disclosure of information in certain cases (old section 635AA)

457. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the Registrar, any officer of the Government or any other person shall not be compelled to disclose to any court, Tribunal or other authority, the source from where he got any information which— (a) has led the Central Government to order an investigation under section 210; or (b) is or has been material or relevant in connection with such investigation.

Section 458: Delegation by central government of its powers and functions (old section 637)

458. (1) The Central Government may, by notification, and subject to such conditions, limitations and restrictions as may be specified therein, delegate any of its powers or functions under this Act other than the power to make rules to such authority or officer as may be specified in the notification: Provided that the powers to enforce the provisions contained in section 194 and section 195 relating to forward dealing and insider trading shall be delegated to Securities and Exchange Board for listed companies or the companies which intend to get their securities listed and in such case, any officer authorised by the Securities and Exchange Board shall have the power to file a complaint in the court of competent jurisdiction.

(2) A copy of every notification issued under sub-section (1) shall, as soon as may be after it is issued, be laid before each House of Parliament.

Section 459: Powers of central government or Tribunal to accord approval etc (old section 637A)

459. (1) Where the Central Government or the Tribunal is required or authorised by any provision of this Act— (a) to accord approval, sanction, consent, confirmation or recognition to, or in relation to, any matter; or (b) to give any direction in relation to any matter; or (c) to grant any exemption in relation to any matter, then, the Central Government or the Tribunal may in the absence of anything to the contrary contained in that provision or any other provision of this Act, accord, give or grant such approval, sanction, consent, confirmation, recognition, direction or exemption, subject to such conditions, limitations or restrictions as it may think fit to impose and may, in the case of a contravention of any such condition, limitation or restriction, rescind or withdraw such approval, sanction, consent, confirmation, recognition, direction or exemption.

(2) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, every application which may be, or is required to be, made to the Central Government or the Tribunal under any provision of this Act— (a) in respect of any approval, sanction, consent, confirmation or recognition to be accorded by that Government or the Tribunal to, or in relation to, any matter; or (b) in respect of any direction or exemption to be given or granted by that Government or the Tribunal in relation to any matter; or (c) in respect of any other matter, shall be accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed: Provided that different fees may be prescribed for applications in respect of different matters or in case of applications by different classes of companies.

Section 460: Condonation of delay in certain cases (old section 637B)

460. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act,—

(a) where any application required to be made to the Central Government under any provision of this Act in respect of any matter is not made within the time specified therein, that Government may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, condone the delay; and

(b) where any document required to be filed with the Registrar under any provision of this Act is not filed within the time specified therein, the Central Government may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, condone the delay.

Section 461: Annual reports by central government (old section 638)

461. The Central Government shall cause a general annual report on the working and administration of this Act to be prepared and laid before each House of Parliament within one year of the close of the year to which the report relates.

Section 462: Power to exempt a class or classes of companies from provisions of this Act (old section 620)

462. (1) The Central Government may in the public interest, by notification direct that

any of the provisions of this Act,—

(a) shall not apply to such class or classes of companies; or (b) shall apply to the class or classes of companies with such exceptions, modifications and adaptations as may be specified in the notification.

(2) A copy of every notification proposed to be issued under sub-section (1), shall be laid in draft before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in disapproving the issue of the notification or both Houses agree in making any modification in the notification, the notification shall not be issued or, as the case may be, shall be issued only in such modified form as may be agreed upon by both the Houses.

Section 463: Power of court to grant relief in certain cases (old section 633)

463. (1) If in any proceeding for negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust against an officer of a company, it appears to the court hearing the case that he is or may be liable in respect of the negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust, but that he has acted honestly and reasonably, and that having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including those connected with his appointment, he ought fairly to be excused, the court may relieve him, either wholly or partly, from his liability on such term, as it may think fit: Provided that in a criminal proceeding under this sub-section, the court shall have no power to grant relief from any civil liability which may attach to an officer in respect of such negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust.

(2) Where any such officer has reason to apprehend that any proceeding will or might be brought against him in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust, he may apply to the High Court for relief and the High Court on such application shall have the same power to relieve him as it would have had if it had been a court before which a proceedings against that officer for negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust had been brought under sub-section (1).

(3) No court shall grant any relief to any officer under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) unless it has, by notice served in the manner specified by it, required the Registrar and such other person, if any, as it thinks necessary, to show cause why such relief should not be granted.

Section 467: Power to central government to amend schedules (old section 641)

467. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, the Central Government may, by notification, alter any of the regulations, rules, Tables, forms and other provisions contained in any of the Schedules to this Act.

 (2) Any alteration notified under sub-section (1) shall have effect as if enacted in this Act and shall come into force on the date of the notification, unless the notification otherwise directs: Provided that no such alteration in Table F of Schedule I shall apply to any company registered before the date of such alteration.

(3) Every alteration made by the Central Government under sub-section (1) shall be laid as soon as may be after it is made before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the alteration, or both Houses agree that the alteration should not be made, the alteration shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done in pursuance of that alteration.

Section 468: Power of central government to make rules relating winding up (old section 643)

468. (1) The Central Government shall, make rules consistent with the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 providing for all matters relating to the winding up of companies, which by this Act, are to be prescribed, and may make rules providing for all such matters, as may be prescribed.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(i) as to the mode of proceedings to be held for winding up of a company by the Tribunal;

(ii) for the voluntary winding up of companies, whether by members or by creditors;

(iii) for the holding of meetings of creditors and members in connection with proceedings under section 230;

(iv) for giving effect to the provisions of this Act as to the reduction of the capital;

(v) generally for all applications to be made to the Tribunal under the provisions of this Act; (vi) the holding and conducting of meetings to ascertain the wishes of creditors and contributories;

(vii) the settling of lists of contributories and the rectifying of the register of members where required, and collecting and applying the assets; (viii) the payment, delivery, conveyance, surrender or transfer of money, property, books or papers to the liquidator; (ix) the making of calls; and (x) the fixing of a time within which debts and claims shall be proved.

(3) All rules made by the Supreme Court on the matters referred to in this section as it stood immediately before the commencement of this Act and in force at such commencement, shall continue to be in force, till such time the rules are made by the Central Government and any reference to the High Court in relation to winding up of a company in such rules shall be construed as a reference to the Tribunal.

Section 469: Power to central government to make rules (old section 642)

469. (1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Government may make rules for all or any of the matters which by this Act are required to be, or may be, prescribed or in respect of which provision is to be or may be made by rules.

(3) Any rule made under sub-section (1) may provide that a contravention thereof shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and where the contravention is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for every day after the first during which such contravention continues.

(4) Every rule made under this section and every regulation made by Securities and Exchange Board under this Act, shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or regulation or both Houses agree that the rule or regulation should not be made, the rule or regulation shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or regulation.

Section 470: Power to remove difficulties (new provisions)

470. (1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as appear to it to be necessary or expedient for removing the difficulty: Provided that no such order shall be made after the expiry of a period of five years from the date of commencement of section 1 of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.


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Category Corporate Law, Other Articles by - sachin pathak 



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