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Analysing AO making additions on Peak Purchase Credit

CA Divyajeet Singh Sabharwal , Last updated: 20 January 2024  

The Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) has stirred the tax landscape with a recent ruling holding that the Assessing Officer (AO) cannot make additions on peak purchase credit if the ITAT itself had applied a 4% gross profit (GP) rate to bogus purchases from a previous year. This judgment, with far-reaching implications for taxpayers and tax authorities, warrants a closer look through the lens of its implecations and detailed analysis.

Case Background

The factual matrix of the case remains undisclosed in the available information. However, the crux of the matter lies in the ITAT's application of a 4% GP rate to bogus purchases made by the taxpayer in a previous year. This implies that the ITAT acknowledged the existence of bogus purchases but adopted a lenient approach by deeming only 4% of the purchase value as income, presumably after considering the cost of goods sold and other relevant factors.

Analysing AO making additions on Peak Purchase Credit

Judgment Implications

  • Peak Purchase Credit Disallowed: The key implication of the ruling is that the AO is precluded from making additions on peak purchase credit even for the year under assessment if the ITAT had already dealt with and disposed of the issue of bogus purchases from a previous year by applying a 4% GP rate. This effectively bars the AO from reopening a closed matter and making further additions related to the same set of bogus purchases.
  • Finality of ITAT Order: The judgment emphasizes the finality of an ITAT order. Once the ITAT adjudicates a dispute and arrives at a conclusive determination, the AO cannot revisit the same issue in subsequent years unless there are fresh grounds or material evidence not previously considered. This principle upholds the integrity of the appellate process and prevents unnecessary litigation.
  • Proportionality and Leniency: The application of a 4% GP rate by the ITAT suggests a recognition of the complexity surrounding bogus purchases. It acknowledges that not all bogus purchases translate directly into taxable income and that a certain portion might represent inflated costs or fictitious transactions. This approach offers a measure of leniency to taxpayers caught in such situations compared to the harsher consequences of disallowing the entire purchase value.

Detailed Analysis

  • Legal Precedents: The ITAT's decision aligns with established legal principles of precedent and finality of orders. Several past judgments have emphasized that issues concluded by a higher judicial body cannot be reopened by lower authorities unless specific exceptions apply. This ruling reinforces the consistency and predictability of the tax adjudication process.
  • Rationale behind 4% GP Rate: The specific rationale behind the ITAT's choice of a 4% GP rate remains unclear from the available information. It could be based on an industry average, analysis of comparable businesses, or other factors deemed relevant by the Tribunal. Understanding the reasoning behind the chosen rate would provide further clarity on the scope and applicability of this judgment.
  • Revenue Implications: The ruling might have potential negative implications for revenue collection. By limiting the AO's ability to make additions on peak purchase credit in subsequent years, the government might potentially lose tax revenue from individuals involved in bogus purchases. However, it is crucial to balance revenue considerations with principles of fairness and finality in tax adjudication.

Potential Challenges and Caveats

  • Interpretation and Misuse: This judgment, while providing certain safeguards to taxpayers, is susceptible to misinterpretation and misuse. Taxpayers might attempt to claim protection under this ruling even if the factual circumstances and ITAT orders in their cases differ significantly. Therefore, careful analysis of the specific facts and legal precedents is essential to determine the applicability of this ruling.
  • Scope of Bogus Purchases: The judgment seems to be restricted to situations where the ITAT has already dealt with bogus purchases and applied a specific GP rate. It remains unclear whether the rationale would extend to cases where the bogus purchases haven't been adjudicated upon or the ITAT adopted a different approach. Further clarity on the scope and limitations of this ruling is needed.


The ITAT's decision marks a significant development in the realm of tax litigation. While it offers relief to taxpayers facing potential double jeopardy on account of bogus purchases, it also underscores the importance of adhering to the principles of precedent and finality of orders. A comprehensive understanding of the implications, rationale, and limitations of this ruling is crucial for both taxpayers and tax authorities to navigate the complex legal landscape surrounding bogus purchases and peak purchase credit effectively.

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Published by

CA Divyajeet Singh Sabharwal
(Accounts and Finance Analyst)
Category Income Tax   Report



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