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The provisions of Finance Bill, 2018 relating to direct taxes seek to amend the Income-tax Act, 1961 (hereafter referred to as 'the Act') to continue to provide momentum to the buoyancy in direct taxes through deepening and widening of the tax base, reducing the corporate tax rate for micro, small and medium enterprises, promoting horizontal equity in personal income-tax and enhancing the effectiveness, transparency and accountability of the tax administration.

With a view to achieving the above, the various proposals for amendments are organized under the following heads:

(A) Rates of income-tax
(B) Widening and deepening of tax base
(C) Measures for promoting equity
(D) Tax incentives
(E) Facilitating insolvency resolution
(F) Improving effectiveness of tax administration
(G) Rationalization Measures
(H) Miscellaneous

DIRECT TAXES

A. RATES OF INCOME-TAX

I. Rates of income-tax in respect of income liable to tax for the assessment year 2018-19.

In respect of income of all categories of assessees liable to tax for the assessment year 2018-19, the rates of income-tax have been specified in Part I of the First Schedule to the Bill. These are the same as those laid down in Part III of the First Schedule to the Finance Act, 2017 for the purposes of computation of 'advance tax', deduction of tax at source from 'Salaries' and charging of tax payable in certain cases.

(1) Surcharge on income-tax

The amount of income-tax shall be increased by a surcharge for the purposes of the Union,-

(a) in the case of every individual or Hindu undivided family or every association of persons or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, or every artificial juridical person referred to in sub-clause (vii) of clause (31) of section 2 of the Act,-

(i) at the rate of ten per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of income paid or likely to be paid and subject to deduction exceeds fifty lakh rupees but does not exceed one crore rupees, and

(ii) at the rate of fifteen per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of income paid or likely to be paid and subject to deduction exceeds one crore rupees;

(iii) surcharge will also be levied at the appropriate rates in cases where these persons are liable to tax under section 115JC of the Act.

(b) in the case of cooperative societies, firms or local authorities having total income exceeding one crore rupees, surcharge will be levied at the rate of twelve per cent. of income-tax payable on total income. In the case of such persons having total income chargeable to tax under section 115JC of the Act and such income exceeds one crore rupees, surcharge at the rate of twelve per cent. shall be levied.

(c ) in the case of a domestic company,-

(i) having total income exceeding one crore rupees but not exceeding ten crore rupees, the amount of income-tax computed shall be increased by a surcharge for the purposes of the Union calculated at the rate of seven per cent. of such income tax;

(ii) having total income exceeding ten crore rupees, the amount of income-tax computed shall be increased by a surcharge for the purposes of the Union calculated at the rate of twelve per cent. of such income-tax; and

(iii) surcharge will also be levied at the appropriate rates in cases where the company is liable to tax under section 115JB of the Act.

(d) in the case of a company, other than a domestic company,-

(i) having total income exceeding one crore rupees but not exceeding ten crore rupees, the amount of income-tax computed shall be increased by a surcharge for the purposes of the Union calculated at the rate of two per cent. of such income tax;

(ii) having total income exceeding ten crore rupees, the amount of income-tax computed shall be increased by a surcharge for the purposes of the Union calculated at the rate of five per cent. of such income tax; and

(iii) surcharge will also be levied at the appropriate rates in cases where the company is liable to tax under section 115JB of the Act.

(e) In other cases (including sections 115-O, 115QA, 115R, 115TA or 115TD), the surcharge shall be levied at the rate of twelve per cent..

(2) Marginal Relief-

Marginal relief has also been provided in all cases where surcharge is proposed to be imposed.

(3) Education Cess-

For assessment year 2018-19, additional surcharge by way of 'Education Cess on income-tax' and 'Secondary and Higher Education Cess on income-tax' shall continue to be levied at the rate of two per cent. and one per cent., respectively, on the amount of tax computed, inclusive of surcharge, in all cases. No marginal relief shall be available in respect of such cesses.

II. Rates for deduction of income-tax at source during the financial year 2018-19 from certain incomes other than 'Salaries'.

The rates for deduction of income-tax at source during the financial year 2018-19 from certain incomes other than 'Salaries' have been specified in Part II of the First Schedule to the Bill. The rates for all the categories of persons will remain the same as those specified in Part II of the First Schedule to the Finance Act, 2017, for the purposes of deduction of income-tax at source during the financial year 2017-18. However, in case of long-term capital gain referred to in section 112A of the Act, tax shall now be deducted at source at the rate of 10 per cent..

(1) Surcharge-

 The amount of tax so deducted, in the case of a non-resident person (other than a company), shall be increased by a surcharge,-

(a) in case of an individual, Hindu undivided family, association of person, body of individual or artificial juridical person;

(i) at the rate of ten per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of such incomes paid or likely to be paid and subject to the deduction exceeds fifty lakh rupees but does not exceed one crore rupees;

(ii) at the rate of fifteen per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of such incomes paid or likely to be paid and subject to the deduction exceeds one crore rupees; and

(b) in case of a firm or cooperative society, at the rate of twelve per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of such incomes paid or likely to be paid and subject to the deduction exceeds one crore rupees.

The amount of tax so deducted, in the case of a company other than a domestic company, shall be increased by a surcharge,-

(a) at the rate of two per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of such incomes paid or likely to be paid and subject to the deduction exceeds one crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees;

(b) at the rate of five per cent. of such tax, where the income or the aggregate of such incomes paid or likely to be paid and subject to the deduction exceeds ten crore rupees. No surcharge will be levied on deductions in other cases.

(2) Education Cess-

'Education Cess on income-tax' and 'Secondary and Higher Education Cess on income-tax' shall be discontinued. However, a new cess, by the name of 'Health and Education Cess' shall be levied at the rate of four per cent. of income tax including surcharge wherever applicable, in the cases of persons not resident in India including company other than a domestic company.

III. Rates for deduction of income-tax at source from 'Salaries', computation of 'advance tax' and charging of income-tax in special cases during the financial year 2018-19.

The rates for deduction of income-tax at source from 'Salaries' during the financial year 2018-19 and also for computation of 'advance tax' payable during the said year in the case of all categories of assessees have been specified in Part III of the First Schedule to the Bill. These rates are also applicable for charging income-tax during the financial year 2018-19 on current incomes in cases where accelerated assessments have to be made, for instance, provisional assessment of shipping profits arising in India to non-residents, assessment of persons leaving India for good during the financial year, assessment of persons who are likely to transfer property to avoid tax, assessment of bodies formed for a short duration, etc. The salient features of the rates specified in the said Part III are indicated in the following paragraphs

A. Individual, Hindu undivided family, association of persons, body of individuals, artificial juridical person.

Paragraph A of Part-III of First Schedule to the Bill provides following rates of income-tax:-

(i) The rates of income-tax in the case of every individual (other than those mentioned in (ii) and (iii) below) or Hindu undivided family or every association of persons or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, or every artificial juridical person referred to in sub-clause (vii) of clause (31) of section 2 of the Act (not being a case to which any other Paragraph of Part III applies) are as under:-


Upto Rs. 2,50,000

Nil.

Rs. 2,50,001 to Rs. 5,00,000

5 per cent..

Rs. 5,00,001 to Rs. 10,00,000

20 per cent..

Above Rs. 10,00,000

30 per cent..


(ii) In the case of every individual, being a resident in India, who is of the age of sixty years or more but less than eighty years at any time during the previous year,-


Upto Rs.3,00,000

Nil.

Rs. 3,00,001 to Rs. 5,00,000

5 per cent..

Rs. 5,00,001 to Rs. 10,00,000

20 per cent..

Above Rs. 10,00,000

30 per cent..


(iii) in the case of every individual, being a resident in India, who is of the age of eighty years or more at any time during the previous year,-


Upto Rs. 5,00,000

Nil.

Rs. 5,00,001 to Rs. 10,00,000

20 per cent.

Above Rs. 10,00,000

30 per cent.


The amount of income-tax computed in accordance with the preceding provisions of this Paragraph shall be increased by a surcharge at the rate of,-

(i) ten per cent. of such income-tax in case of a person having a total income exceeding fifty lakh rupees but not exceeding one crore rupees; and

(ii) fifteen per cent. of such income-tax in case of a person having a total income exceeding one crore rupees.

However, in case of (i) above, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding fifty lakh rupees but not exceeding one crore rupees, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on such income shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on a total income of fifty lakh rupees by more than the amount of income that exceeds fifty lakh rupees.

Further, in case of (ii) above, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding one crore rupees shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on a total income of one crore rupees by more than the amount of income that exceeds one crore rupees.

B. Co-operative Societies

 In the case of co-operative societies, the rates of income-tax have been specified in Paragraph B of Part III of the First Schedule to the Bill. These rates will continue to be the same as those specified for financial year 2017-18. The amount of income-tax shall be increased by a surcharge at the rate of twelve per cent. of such income-tax in case of a co-operative society having a total income exceeding one crore rupees. However, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding one crore rupees shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on a total income of one crore rupees by more than the amount of income that exceeds one crore rupees.

C. Firms

 In the case of firms, the rate of income-tax has been specified in Paragraph C of Part III of the First Schedule to the Bill. This rate will continue to be the same as that specified for financial year 2017-18. The amount of income-tax shall be increased by a surcharge at the rate of twelve per cent. of such income-tax in case of a firm having a total income exceeding one crore rupees. However, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding one crore rupees shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on a total income of one crore rupees by more than the amount of income that exceeds one crore rupees.

D. Local authorities

The rate of income-tax in the case of every local authority has been specified in Paragraph D of Part III of the First Schedule to the Bill. This rate will continue to be the same as that specified for the financial year 2017-18. The amount of income-tax shall be increased by a surcharge at the rate of twelve per cent. of such income-tax in case of a local authority having a total income exceeding one crore rupees. However, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding one crore rupees shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on a total income of one crore rupees by more than the amount of income that exceeds one crore rupees.

E. Companies

The rates of income-tax in the case of companies have been specified in Paragraph E of Part III of the First Schedule to the Bill. In case of domestic company, the rate of income-tax shall be twenty five per cent. of the total income if the total turnover or gross receipts of the previous year 2016-17 does not exceed two hundred and fifty crore rupees and in all other cases the rate of Income-tax shall be thirty per cent. of the total income. In the case of company other than domestic company, the rates of tax are the same as those specified for the financial year 2017-18. Surcharge at the rate of seven per cent. shall continue to be levied in case of a domestic company if the total income of the domestic company exceeds one crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees. Surcharge at the rate of twelve per cent. shall continue to be levied if the total income of the domestic company exceeds ten crore rupees. In case of companies other than domestic companies, the existing surcharge of two per cent. shall continue to be levied if the total income exceeds one crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees. Surcharge at the rate of five per cent. shall continue to be levied if the total income of the company other than domestic company exceeds ten crore rupees. However, the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding one crore rupees but not exceeding ten crore rupees, shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on a total income of one crore rupees, by more than the amount of income that exceeds one crore rupees. The total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income exceeding ten crore rupees, shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on a total income of ten crore rupees, by more than the amount of income that exceeds ten crore rupees.

In other cases (including sections 115-O, 115QA, 115R, 115TA or 115TD), the surcharge shall be levied at the rate of twelve per cent..

For financial year 2018-19, additional surcharge called the 'Health and Education Cess on income-tax' shall be levied at the rate of four per cent. on the amount of tax computed, inclusive of surcharge (wherever applicable), in all cases. No marginal relief shall be available in respect of such cess. [Clause 2 & First Schedule]

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