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Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 2
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain
type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold italic type indicate the main
1 The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for
inventories. A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount of
cost to be recognised as an asset and carried forward until the related revenues
are recognised. This Standard deals with the determination of cost and its
subsequent recognition as an expense, including any write-down to net
realisable value. It also provides guidance on the cost formulas that are used
to assign costs to inventories.
2 This Standard applies to all inventories, except:
(a) [Refer Appendix 1]
(b) financial instruments (Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments:
Presentation and Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments and ); and
(c) biological assets (ie living animals or plants) related to agricultural
activity and agricultural produce at the point of harvest (See Ind
AS 41, Agriculture).
3 This Standard does not apply to the measurement of inventories held by:
(a) producers of agricultural and forest products, agricultural
produce after harvest, and minerals and mineral products, to
the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in
accordance with well-established practices in those industries.
When such inventories are measured at net realisable value,
changes in that value are recognised in profit or loss in the period
of the change.
(b) commodity broker-traders who measure their inventories at fair
value less costs to sell. When such inventories are measured at fair
value less costs to sell, changes in fair value less costs to sell are
recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change.
4 The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(a) are measured at net realisable
value at certain stages of production. This occurs, for example, when
agricultural crops have been harvested or minerals have been extracted and
sale is assured under a forward contract or a government guarantee, or when
an active market exists and there is a negligible risk of failure to sell. These
inventories are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this
5 Broker-traders are those who buy or sell commodities for others or on their
own account. The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(b) are principally
acquired with the purpose of selling in the near future and generating a profit
from fluctuations in price or broker-traders’ margin. When these inventories
are measured at fair value less costs to sell, they are excluded from only the
measurement requirements of this Standard.
6 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings
Inventories are assets:
(a) held for sale in the ordinary course of business;
(b) in the process of production for such sale; or
(c) in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the
production process or in the rendering of services.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course
of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs
necessary to make the sale.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to
transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants
at the measurement date. (See Ind AS 113, Fair Value Measurement.)
7 Net realisable value refers to the net amount that an entity expects to realise
from the sale of inventory in the ordinary course of business. . Fair value
reflects the price at which an orderly transaction to sell the same inventory in
the principal (or most advantageous) market for that inventory would take
place between market participants at the measurement date. The former is an
entity-specific value; the latter is not. Net realisable value for inventories may
not equal fair value less costs to sell.
8 Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale including, for
example, merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, or land and
other property held for resale. Inventories also encompass finished goods
produced, or work in progress being produced, by the entity and include
materials and supplies awaiting use in the production process. ) Costs incurred
to fulfil a contract with a customer that do not give rise to inventories (or
assets within the scope of another Standard) are accounted for in accordance
with Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
Measurement of inventories
9 Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
Cost of inventories
10 The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of
conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their
present location and condition.
Costs of purchase
11 The costs of purchase of inventories comprise the purchase price, import
duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the entity
from the taxing authorities), and transport, handling and other costs directly
attributable to the acquisition of finished goods, materials and services. Trade
discounts, rebates a n d o t h e r s i m i l a r i t e m s a r e d e d u c t e d in d e t e r m i n i n g
t h e c o s t s of purchase.
Costs of conversion
12 The costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly related to the
units of production, such as direct labour. They also include a systematic
allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are
incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production
overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant
regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance
of factory buildings and equipment, and the cost of factory management and
administration. Variable production overheads are those indirect costs of
production that vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of
production, such as indirect materials and indirect labour.
13 The allocation of fixed production overheads to the costs of conversion is
based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity is
the production expected to be achieved on average over a number of periods or
seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity
resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be
used if it approximates normal capacity. The amount of fixed overhead
allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low
production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads are recognised as an expense
in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high
production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production
is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable
production overheads are allocated to each unit of production on the basis of
the actual use of the production facilities.
14 A production process may result in more than one product being produced
simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when joint products are
produced or when there is a main product and a by-product. When the costs of
conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated
between the products on a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be
based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the
stage in the production process when the products become separately
identifiable, or at the completion of production. Most by-products, by their
nature, are immaterial. When this is the case, they are often measured at net
realisable value and this value is deducted from the cost of the main product.
As a result, the carrying amount of the main product is not materially different
from its cost.
15 Other costs are included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they
are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
For example, it may be appropriate to include non-production overheads or the
costs of designing products for specific customers in the cost of inventories.
16 Examples of costs excluded from the cost of inventories and recognised as
expenses in the period in which they are incurred are:
(a) abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour or other production
(b) storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production
process before a further production stage;
(c) administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing inventories
to their present location and condition; and
(d) selling costs.
17 Ind AS 23, Borrowing Costs, identifies limited circumstances where
borrowing costs are included in the cost of inventories.
18 An entity may purchase inventories on deferred settlement terms. When the
arrangement effectively contains a financing element, that element, for
example a difference between the purchase price for normal credit terms and
the amount paid, is recognised as interest expense over the period of the
Cost of inventories of a service provider
19 [Refer Appendix 1]
Cost of agricultural produce harvested from biological assets
20 In accordance with Ind AS 41, Agriculture, inventories comprising agricultural
produce that an entity has harvested from its biological assets are measured on
initial recognition at their fair value less costs to sell at the point of harvest.
This is the cost of the inventories at that date for application of this Standard.
Techniques for the measurement of cost
21 Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the
standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the
results approximate cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of
materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are
regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions.
22 The retail method is often used in the retail industry for measuring inventories
of large numbers of rapidly changing items with similar margins for which it is
impracticable to use other costing methods. The cost of the inventory is
determined by reducing the sales value of the inventory by the appropriate
percentage gross margin. The percentage used takes into consideration
inventory that has been marked down to below its original selling price. An
average percentage for each retail department is often used.
23 The cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and
goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be
assigned by using specific identification of their individual costs.
24 Specific identification of cost means that specific costs are attributed to
identified items of inventory. This is the appropriate treatment for items that
are segregated for a specific project, regardless of whether they have been
bought or produced. However, specific identification of costs is inappropriate
when there are large numbers of items of inventory that are ordinarily
interchangeable. In such circumstances, the method of selecting those items
that remain in inventories could be used to obtain predetermined effects on
profit or loss.
25 The cost of inventories, other than those dealt with in paragraph 23, shall
be assigned by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost
formula. An entity shall use the same cost formula for all inventories
having a similar nature and use to the entity. For inventories with a
different nature or use, different cost formulas may be justified.
26 For example, inventories used in one operating segment may have a use to the
entity different from the same type of inventories used in another operating
segment. However, a difference in geographical location of inventories (or in
the respective tax rules), by itself, is not sufficient to justify the use of different
27 The FIFO formula assumes that the items of inventory that were purchased or
produced first are sold first, and consequently the items remaining in inventory
at the end of the period are those most recently purchased or produced. Under
the weighted average cost formula, the cost of each item is determined from
the weighted average of the cost of similar items at the beginning of a period
and the cost of similar items purchased or produced during the period. The
average may be calculated on a periodic basis, or as each additional shipment
is received, depending upon the circumstances of the entity.
Net realisable value
28 The cost of inventories may not be recoverable if those inventories are
damaged, if they have become wholly or partially obsolete, or if their selling
prices have declined. The cost of inventories may also not be recoverable if the
estimated costs of completion or the estimated costs to be incurred to make the
sale have increased. The practice of writing inventories down below cost to net
realisable value is consistent with the view that assets should not be carried in
excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use.
29 Inventories are usually written down to net realisable value item by item. In
some circumstances, however, it may be appropriate to group similar or
related items. This may be the case with items of inventory relating to the
same product line that have similar purposes or end uses, are produced and
marketed in the same geographical area, and cannot be practicably evaluated
separately from other items in that product line. It is not appropriate to write
inventories down on the basis of a classification of inventory, for example,
finished goods, or all the inventories in a particular operating segment.
30 Estimates of net realisable value are based on the most reliable evidence
available at the time the estimates are made, of the amount the inventories are
expected to realise. These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of
price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the end of the period to
the extent that such events confirm conditions existing at the end of the period.
31 Estimates of net realisable value also take into consideration the purpose for
which the inventory is held. For example, the net realisable value of the
quantity of inventory held to satisfy firm sales or service contracts is based on
the contract price. If the sales contracts are for less than the inventory
quantities held, the net realisable value of the excess is based on general
selling prices. Provisions may arise from firm sales contracts in excess of
inventory quantities held or from firm purchase contracts. Such provisions are
dealt with under Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent
32 Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are
not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be
incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. However, when a
decline in the price of materials indicates that the cost of the finished products
exceeds net realisable value, the materials are written down to net realisable
value. In such circumstances, the replacement cost of the materials may be the
best available measure of their net realisable value.
33 A new assessment is made of net realisable value in each subsequent period.
When the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be written down
below cost no longer exist or when there is clear evidence of an increase in net
realisable value because of changed economic circumstances, the amount of
the write-down is reversed (ie the reversal is limited to the amount of the
original write-down) so that the new carrying amount is the lower of the cost
and the revised net realisable value. This occurs, for example, when an item
of inventory that is carried at net realisable value, because its selling price has
declined, is still on hand in a subsequent period and its selling price has
Recognition as an expense
34 When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall
be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is
recognised. The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realisable
value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the
period the write-down or loss occurs. The amount of any reversal of any
write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value,
shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised
as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.
35 Some inventories may be allocated to other asset accounts, for example,
inventory used as a component of self-constructed property, plant or
equipment. Inventories allocated to another asset in this way are recognised as
an expense during the useful life of that asset.
36 The financial statements shall disclose:
(a) the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories,
including the cost formula used;
(b) the total carrying amount of inventories and the carrying
amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;
(c) the carrying amount of inventories carried at fair value less costs
(d) the amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the
(e) the amount of any write-down of inventories recognised as an
expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;
(f) the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is
recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised
as expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;
(g) the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a
write-down of inventories in accordance with paragraph 34; and
(h) the carrying amount of inventories pledged as security for
37 Information about the carrying amounts held in different classifications of
inventories and the extent of the changes in these assets is useful to financial
statement users. Common classifications of inventories are merchandise,
production supplies, materials, work in progress and finished goods.
38 [Refer Appendix 1]
39 An entity adopts a format for profit or loss that results in amounts being
disclosed other than the cost of inventories recognised as an expense during
the period. Under this format, the entity presents an analysis of expenses
using a classification based on the nature of expenses. In this case, the entity
discloses the costs recognised as an expense for raw materials and
consumables, labour costs and other costs together with the amount of the net
change in inventories for the period.
References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting
This Appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.
This appendix lists the appendix which is a part of another Indian Accounting
Standard and makes reference to Ind AS 2, Inventories.
1 Appendix A, Intangible Assets-Web site Costs, contained in Ind AS 38,
2 Appendix B, Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine,
contained in Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment.
Note: This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of
this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian
Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 2 and the corresponding International Accounting
Standard (IAS) 2, Inventories, issued by the International Accounting Standards
Comparison with IAS 2, Inventories
1 Paragraph 38 of IAS 2 dealing with recognition of inventories as an expense
based on function-wise classification, has been deleted keeping in view the
fact that option provided in IAS 1 to present an analysis of expenses
recognised in profit or loss using a classification based on their function within
the entity has been removed and Ind AS 1 requires only nature-wise
classification of expenses. However, in order to maintain consistency with
paragraph numbers of IAS 2, the paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 2.
2 Following paragraph numbers appear as ‘Deleted’ in IAS 2. In order to
maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 2, the paragraph
numbers are retained in Ind AS 2:
(i) Paragraph 2(a)
(ii) Paragraph 19.