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Cost Audit - Companies Rules, 2014 #pdf
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Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules,2014 - for CMA Examinations (applicable from June 2015 term of Examination) reference to the following papers Paper 10 Cost & Management Accountancy - Section B Syllabus 2012 (Intermediate) Paper 19 Cost & Management Audit Syllabus 2012 (Final) Paper 17 Cost Audit & Operational Audit Syllabus 2008 (Final) The Institute of Cost Accountants of India (Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) www.icmai.in follow us on : Compiled by: Academics Department The Institute of Cost Accountants of India (Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Headquarters: CMA Bhawan, 12, Sudder Street Kolkata -700016. For any clarification, please write down to: bos@icmai.in Disclaimer: For any interpretation issue, please refer to the Bare Act/Rules issued by the MCA,GOI. Also make reference to the technical literature issued by the Institute from time to time on the stated rule. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 1/68 Rules/Forms Summary Rule 1: Short title and commencement (1) These rules may be called the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014. (2) They shall come into force on the date of publication in the Official Gazette i.e. 30.06.2014. Rule 2: Definitions In these rules, defined various points - (a) Act; (aa) Central Excise Tariff Act Heading; (b) Cost Accountant in practice; (c) cost auditor (d) cost audit report; (e) cost records; (f) form; (g) institute; (h) all other words and expressions used in these rules but not defined, and defined in the Act or in the Companies (Specification of Definition Details) Rules, 2014 shall have the same meanings as assigned to them in the Act or in the said rules Rule-3: Application of Cost Records Two categories (regulated sectors and non-regulated sectors) have been retained and a general threshold of turnover of ` 35 crores or more has been prescribed for companies covered. Micro enterprise or a small enterprise as per MSMED Act, 2006 have been taken out of the purview. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 2/68 Rule 3: Diagrammatic Representation Rule-4: Applicability for Cost Audit Even for regulated sectors like Telecommunication, Electricity, Petroleum and Gas, Drugs and Pharma, Fertilizers and Sugar, Cost audit requirement has been made subject to a turnover based threshold of ` 50 crores for all product and services and ` 25 crores for individual product or services. For Non-regulated sector the threshold is ` 100 crores and ` 35 crores respectively. Applicability of maintenance of Cost Records Domestic or Foreign Company Listed in Table of Rule 3 Engaged in Production of goods or providing services Overall turnover from all of its products and services ≥ ` 35 crore (preceding financial year) Regulated Non-regulated Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 3/68 Rule 4: Diagrammatic Representation Rule-5: Maintenance of Cost Records The requirement to maintain cost records in Form CRA-1 have been postponed to Financial Year 2015-16 for the following companies in some non-regulated sectors, namely; Coffee and Tea, Milk Powder and Electricals and electronic machinery. Rule-6: Cost Audit Any casual vacancy in the office of a cost auditor, whether due to resignation, death or removal to be filled by the Board of Require Cost Audit under Rule 4 Regulatory Sectors (A) Non- regulatory Sectors (B) Applicability of Cost Audit (Rule 4) Aggregate turnover of the Individual product or products or service or services ≥ ` 25 crore Aggregate turnover of the Individual product or products or service or services ≥ ` 35 crore Rule 4 shall not apply. Only Rule 3 will apply Overall annual turnover during immediately preceding financial year ≥ ` 50 crore If revenue from export (foreign exchange) > 75% of total revenue If Operating from Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Overall annual turnover during immediately preceding financial year ≥ ` 100 crore If revenue from export (foreign exchange) > 75% of total revenue If Operating from Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 4/68 Directors within thirty days of occurrence of such vacancy and the company shall inform the Central Government in Form CRA-2 within thirty days of such appointment of cost auditor. Cost Audit (Rule 6) Board Meeting (Appointment within 180 days of the commencement of Financial) )Year Company shall inform the Cost Auditor concerned of his or its appointment Whichever is earlier File a notice of such appointment with the CG within a period of 30 days of Board meeting in which such appointment is made. File a notice of such appointment with the CG within a period of 180 days from the commencement of the financial year Auditor shall continue in office till the expiry of 180 days from the closure of the financial year or till he submit the report Casual Vacancy shall be filled by BOD within 30 days Inform the CG in CRA – 2 within 30 days of such appointment Submit Cost Audit Report by Cost Auditor in CRA - 3 Cost Audit Report submitted to BOD within 180 days Company within 30 days from the date of receipt of a copy of Cost Audit Report, furnish to the CG in CRA - 4 Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 5/68 CRA-1: Forms in which cost records shall be maintained [Pursuant to rule 5(1)] The form CRA-1 prescribes the form in which cost records shall be maintained. The form categorises the requirement of maintaining proper details as per 30 headings. The headings are as follows: (1) Material Cost, (2) Employee Cost, (3) Utilities, (4) Direct Expenses, (5) Repair and Maintenance, (6) Fixed Assets and Depreciation, (7) Overheads, (8) Administrative Overheads, (9) Transportation Cost, (10) Royalty and Technical Know-how, (11) Research and Development expenses, (12) Quality Control Expenses, (13) Pollution Control Expenses, (14) Service Department Expenses, (15) Packing Expenses, (16) Interest and Financing Charges, (17) Any other item of Cost, (18) Capacity Determination, (19) Work-in-progress and finished stock, (20) Captive Consumption, (21) By-Products and Joint Products, (22) Adjustment of Cost Variances, (23) Reconciliation of Cost and Financial Accounts, (24) Related Party Transactions, (25) Expenses or Incentives on Exports, (26) Production records, (27) Sales records, (28) Cost Statements, (29) Statistical Records, (30) Records of Physical Verification. CRA-2: Form of intimation of appointment of cost auditor by the company to Central Government [Pursuant to rule 6(2)] (i) General Information (ii) Good/s or service/s to which cost audit relates (iii) Details of the cost auditor appointed (iv) Date of meeting of Board of Directors appointing the cost auditor (v) Attachments - Copy of the Board resolution of the company - Optional attachment(s) - if any CRA-3: Form of Cost Audit Report [Pursuant to rule 6(4)] Clause (vii) have been added to auditor‟s report as under: Detailed unit-wise and product/service-wise cost statements and schedules thereto In respect of the product/services under reference of the company duly audited and certified by me/us are/are not kept in the company. Annexure to Cost Audit Report Annexure has been reclassified into four parts as under: Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 6/68 Part-A General Information, General Details of Cost Auditors, Cost Accounting Policy, Product/Service Details –for the company as a whole. Part-B For Manufacturing Sector Quantitative Information, Abridged Cost Statement, Details of Materials Consumed, Details of Utilities Consumed, Details of Industry Specific Operating Expenses. Part-C For Service Sector Quantitative Information, Abridged Cost Statement, Details of Materials Consumed, Details of Utilities Consumed, Details of Industry Specific Operating Expenses. Part-D Product and Service Profitability Statement, Profit Reconciliation, Value Addition and Distribution of Earnings, Financial Position and Ratio Analysis, Related Party Transactions, Reconciliation of Indirect taxes. CRA – 4: Form for filing Cost Audit Report with the Central Government [Pursuant to rule 6(6)] PART I – General Information PART – II – Attachment of Audit Report and optional attachment Detailed Rule follows in page no. 7 to 68. FAQ to be released shortly. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 7/68 [To be published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, section 3, Sub-section (ii)]. Government of India Ministry of Corporate Affairs Notification New Delhi, 30th June, 2014 G.S.R. 425 (E). - In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-sections (1) and (2) of section469 and section 148 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013) and in supersession of Companies (Cost Accounting Records) Rules, 2011; Companies (Cost Audit Report) Rules, 2011;Cost Accounting Records (Telecommunication Industry) Rules, 2011; Cost Accounting Records (Petroleum Industry) Rules, 2011; Cost Accounting Records (Electricity Industry) Rules, 2011; Cost Accounting Records (Sugar Industry) Rules, 2011; Cost Accounting Records (Fertilizer Industry) Rules, 2011 and Cost Accounting Records (Pharmaceutical Industry) Rules, 2011, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before such supersession, the Central Government hereby makes the following rules, namely:- 1. Short title and commencement [Rule 1] (1) These rules may be called the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014. (2) They shall come into force on the date of publication in the Official Gazette. 2. Definitions [Rule 2] In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires - (a) “Act” means the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013); (aa) "Central Excise Tariff Act Heading" means the heading as referred to in the Additional Notes in the First Schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985 [5 of 1986]; (b) “Cost Accountant in practice” means a cost accountant as defined in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Cost and Works Accountants Act, 1959 (23 of 1959), who holds a valid certificate of practice under sub-section (1) of section 6 of that Act and who is deemed to be in practice under sub-section (2) of section 2 thereof, and includes a firm or limited liability partnership of cost accountants; (c) “cost auditor” means a Cost Accountant in practice, as defined in clause (b), who is appointed by the Board; Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 8/68 (d) “cost audit report” means the report duly audited and signed by the cost auditor including attachment, annexure, qualifications or observations etc. to cost audit report; (e) “cost records” means books of account relating to utilisation of materials, labour and other items of cost as applicable to the production of goods or provision of services as provided in section 148 of the Act and these rules; (f) “form” means a form annexed to these rules; (g) “institute” means the Institute of Cost Accountants of India constituted under the Cost and Works Accountants Act, 1959 (23 of 1959); (h) all other words and expressions used in these rules but not defined, and defined in the Act or in the Companies (Specification of Definition Details) Rules, 2014 shall have the same meanings as assigned to them in the Act or in the said rules. 3. Application of Cost Records [Rule 3] For the purposes of sub-section (1) of section 148 of the Act, the class of companies, including foreign companies defined in clause (42) of section 2 of the Act engaged in the production of the goods or providing services, specified in the Table below, having an overall turnover from all its products and services of rupees thirty five crore or more during the immediately preceding financial year, shall include cost records for such products or services in their books Applicability of maintenance of Cost Records Domestic or Foreign Company Listed in Table of Rule 3 Engaged in Production of goods or providing services Overall turnover from all of its products and services ≥ ` 35 crore (preceding financial year) Regulated Non-regulated Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 9/68 of account, namely:- Table of Rule 3 (A) Regulated Sectors S. No. Industry/ Sector/ Product/ Service CETA Heading (wherever applicable) 1. Telecommunication services made available to users by means of any transmission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature (other than broadcasting services) and regulated by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India under the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 (24 of I997); Not applicable. 2. Generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity regulated by the relevant regulatory body or authority under the Electricity Act, 2003 (36 of 2003), other than for captive generation (referred to in the Electricity Rules, 2005); …………. 3. Petroleum products regulated by the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006 (19 of 2006); 2709 to 2715; 4. Drugs and pharmaceuticals; 2901 to 2942; 3001 to 3006. 5. Fertilisers; 3102 to 3105. 6. Sugar and industrial alcohol; 1701; 1703; 2207. (B) Non- regulated Sectors S. No. Industry/ Sector/ Product/ Service CETA Heading (wherever applicable) 1. Machinery and mechanical appliances used in defence, space and atomic energy sectors excluding any ancillary item or items; Explanation - For the purposes of this sub-clause, any company which is engaged in any item or items supplied exclusively for use under this clause, shall be deemed to be covered under these rules. 8401 to 8402; 8801 to 8805; 8901 to 8908. 2. Turbo jets and turbo propellers; 8411 3. Arms and ammunitions; 3601 to 3603; 9301 to 9306. 4. Propellant powders; prepared explosives (other than propellant powders); safety fuses; detonating fuses; 3601 to 3603 Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 10/68 percussion or detonating caps; igniters; electric detonators; 5. Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus and radio remote control apparatus; 8526 6 Tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles, motorised, whether or not fitted with weapons and parts of such vehicles, that are funded (investment made in the company) to the extent of ninety per cent. or more by the Government or Government agencies; 8710 7. Port services of stevedoring, pilotage, hauling, mooring, re-mooring, hooking, measuring, loading and unloading services rendered by a Port in relation to a vessel or goods regulated by the Tariff Authority for Major Ports under section 111 of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963 (38 of 1963); Not applicable. 8. Aeronautical services of air traffic management, aircraft operations, ground safety services, ground handling, cargo facilities and supplying fuel rendered by airports and regulated by the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority under the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act, 2008 (27 of 2008); Not applicable. 9. Steel; 7201 to 7229; 7301 to 7326 10. Roads and other infrastructure projects corresponding to para No. (1) (a) as specified in Schedule VI of the Companies Act, 2013; Not applicable. 11. Rubber and allied products being regulated by the Rubber Board constituted under the Rubber Act, 1947 (XXIV of 1947). 4001 to 4017 12. Coffee and tea; 0901 to 0902 13. Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling stock, railway or tramway fixtures and fittings, mechanical (including electro mechanical) traffic signalling equipment's of all kind; 8601 to 8608. 14. Cement; 2523; 6811 to 6812 15. Ores and Mineral products; 2502 to 2522; 2524 to 2526; 2528 to 2530; 2601 to 2617 16. Mineral fuels (other than Petroleum), mineral oils etc.; 2701 to 2708 17. Base metals; 7401 to 7403; 7405 to 7413; 7419;7501 to 7508; 7601 to 7614; 7801 to 7802; 7804; Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 11/68 7806; 7901 to 7905; 7907; 8001; 8003; 8007; 8101 to 8113. 18. Inorganic chemicals, organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, rare-earth metals of radioactive elements or isotopes, and Organic Chemicals; 2801 to 2853; 2901 to 2942; 3801 to 3807; 3402 to 3403; 3809 to 3824. 19. Jute and Jute Products; 5303, 5310 20. Edible Oil; 1507 to 1518 21. Construction Industry as per para No. (5) (a) as specified in Schedule VI of the Companies Act 2013 (18 of 2013) Not applicable. 22. Health services, namely functioning as or running hospitals, diagnostic centres, clinical centres or test laboratories; Not applicable. 23. Education services, other than such similar services falling under philanthropy or as part of social spend which do not form part of any business. Not applicable. 24. Milk power; 0402 25. Insecticides; 3808 26. Plastics and polymers; 3901 to 3914; 3916 to 3921; 3925 27. Tyres and tubes; 4011 to 4013 28. Paper; 4801 to 4802. 29. Textiles; 5004 to 5007; 5106 to 5113; 5205 to 5212; 5303; 5310; 5401 to 5408; 5501 to 5516 30. Glass; 7003 to 7008; 7011; 7016 31. Other machinery; 8403 to 8487 32. Electricals or electronic machinery; 8501 to 8507; 8511 to 8512; 8514 to 8515; 8517; 8525 to 8536; 8538 to 8547. 33. Production, import and supply or trading of following medical devices, namely:- (i) Cardiac stents; (ii) Drug eluting stents; 9018 to 9022 Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 12/68 (iii) Catheters; (iv) Intra ocular lenses; (v) Bone cements; (vi) Heart valves; (vii) Orthopaedic implants; (viii) Internal prosthetic replacements; (ix) Scalp vein set; (x) Deep brain stimulator; (xi) Ventricular peripheral shud; (xii) Spinal implants; (xiii) Automatic impalpable cardiac deflobillator; (xiv) Pacemaker (temporary and permanent); (xv) Patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect closure device; (xvi) Cardiac re-synchronize therapy ; (xvii) Urethra spinicture devices; (xviii) Sling male or female (xix) Prostate occlusion device; and (xx) Urethral stents: Provided that nothing contained in serial number 33 shall apply to foreign companies having only liaison offices. Provided further that nothing contained in this rule shall apply to a company which is classified as a micro enterprise or a small enterprise including as per the turnover criteria under sub-section (9) of section 7 of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 (27 of 2006). 4. Applicability for Cost Audit [Rule 4] (1) Every company specified in item (A) of rule 3 shall get its cost records audited in accordance with these rules if the overall annual turnover of the company from all its products and services during the immediately preceding financial year is rupees fifty crore or more and the aggregate turnover of the individual product or products or service or services for which cost records are required to be maintained under rule 3 is rupees twenty five crore or more. (2) Every company specified in item (B) of rule 3 shall get its cost records audited in accordance with these rules if the overall annual turnover of the company from all its products and services during the immediately preceding financial year is rupees one hundred crore or more and the aggregate turnover of the individual product or products Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 13/68 or service or services for which cost records are required to be maintained under rule 3 is rupees thirty five crore or more. (3) The requirement for cost audit under these rules shall not apply to a company which is covered in rule 3, and – (i) whose revenue from exports, in foreign exchange, exceed, seventy five per cent of its total revenue; or (ii) which is operating from a special economic zone." Required Cost Audit under Rule 4 Regulatory Sectors (A) Non- regulatory Sectors (B) Applicability of Cost audit (Rule 4) Aggregate turnover of the Individual product or products or service or services ≥ ` 25 crore Aggregate turnover of the Individual product or products or service or services ≥ ` 35 crore Rule 4 shall not apply. Only Rule 3 will apply Overall annual turnover during immediately preceding financial year ≥ ` 50 crore If revenue from export (foreign exchange) > 75% of total revenue If Operating from Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Overall annual turnover during immediately preceding financial year ≥ ` 100 crore If revenue from export (foreign exchange) > 75% of total revenue If Operating from Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 14/68 5. Maintenance of Records [Rule 5] (1) Every company under these rules including all units and branches thereof, shall, in respect of each of its financial year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2014, maintain cost records in form CRA-1. Provided that in case of company covered in serial number 12 and serial numbers 24 to 32 of item (B) of rule 3, the requirement under this rule shall apply in respect of each of its financial year commencing on or after 1st day of April, 2015. (2) The cost records referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be maintained on regular basis in such manner as to facilitate calculation of per unit cost of production or cost of operations, cost of sales and margin for each of its products and activities for every financial year on monthly or quarterly or half-yearly or annual basis. (3) The cost records shall be maintained in such manner so as to enable the company to exercise, as far as possible, control over the various operations and costs to achieve optimum economies in utilisation of resources and these records shall also provide necessary data which is required to be furnished under these rules. 6. Cost Audit [Rule 6] (1) The category of companies specified in rule 3 and the thresholds limits laid down in rule 4, shall within one hundred and eighty days of the commencement of every financial year, appoint a cost auditor. (2) Every company referred to in sub-rule (1) shall inform the cost auditor concerned of his or its appointment as such and file a notice of such appointment with the Central Government within a period of thirty days of the Board meeting in which such appointment is made or within a period of one hundred and eighty days of the commencement of the financial year, whichever is earlier, through electronic mode, in Form CRA-2, alongwith the fee as specified in Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014. (3) Every cost auditor appointed as such shall continue in such capacity till the expiry of one hundred and eighty days from the closure of the financial year or till he submits the cost audit report, for the financial year for which he has been appointed. (3A) Any casual vacancy in the office of a cost auditor, whether due to resignation, death or removal, shall be filled by the Board of Directors within thirty days of occurrence of such vacancy and the company shall inform the Central Government in Form CRA-2 within thirty days of such appointment of cost auditor. (4) Every cost auditor, who conducts an audit of the cost records of a company, shall submit the cost audit report along with his or its reservations or qualifications or observations or suggestions, if any, in Form CRA-3. (5) Every cost auditor shall forward his report to the Board of Directors of the company within a period of one hundred and eighty days from the closure of the financial year to which the report relates and the Board of directors shall consider and examine such report particularly any reservation or qualification contained therein. (6) Every company covered under these rules shall, within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of a copy of the cost audit report, furnish the Central Government with such report alongwith full information and explanation on every reservation or qualification contained therein, in Form CRA-4 alongwith fees specified in the Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014. (7) The provisions of sub-section (12) of section 143 of the Act and the relevant rules made thereunder shall apply mutatis mutandis to a cost auditor during performance of his functions under section 148 of the Act and these rules. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 15/68 Cost Audit (Rule 6) Board Meeting (Appointment within 180 days of the commencement of Financial) )Year Company shall inform the Cost Auditor concerned of his or its appointment Whichever is earlier, File a notice of such appointment with the CG within a period of 30 days of Board meeting in which such appointment is made. File a notice of such appointment with the CG within a period of 180 days from the commencement of the financial year Auditor shall continue in office till the expiry of 180 days from the closure of the financial year or till he submit the report Casual Vacancy shall be filled by BOD within 30 days Inform the CG in CRA – 2 within 30 days of such appointment Submit Cost Audit Report by Cost Auditor in CRA - 3 Cost Audit Report submitted to BOD within 180 days Company within 30 days from the date of receipt of a copy of Cost Audit Report, furnish to the CG in CRA - 4 Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 16/68 Annexure FORM CRA-1 (Pursuant to Rule 5(1) of the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014) Particulars relating to the Items of Costs to be included in the Books of Accounts 1. Material Costs.- (a) Proper records shall be maintained showing separately all receipts, issues and balances both in quantities and cost of each item of raw material required for the production of goods or rendering of services under reference. (b) The material receipt shall be valued at purchase price including duties and taxes, freight inwards, insurance, and other expenditure directly attributable to procurement (net of trade discounts, rebates, taxes and duties refundable or to be credited by the taxing authorities, that can be quantified with reasonable accuracy at the time of acquisition. (c) Finance costs incurred in connection with the acquisition of materials shall not form part of material cost. (d) Self-manufactured materials or captive consumption shall be valued including direct material cost, direct employee cost, direct expenses, factory overheads, share of administrative overheads relating to production but excluding share of other administrative overheads, finance cost and marketing overheads. (e) Spares which are specific to an item of equipment shall not be taken to inventory, but shall be capitalized with the cost of the specific equipment. Cost of capital spares or insurance spares whether procured with the equipment or subsequently, shall be amortised over a period not exceeding the useful life of the equipment. (f) Normal loss or spoilage of material prior to reaching the factory or at places where the services are provided shall be absorbed in the cost of balance materials net of amounts recoverable from suppliers, insurers, carriers or recoveries from disposal. (g) Losses due to shrinkage or evaporation and gain due to elongation or absorption of moisture etc., before the material is received shall be absorbed in material cost to the extent they are normal with corresponding adjustment in the quantity. (h) The forex component of imported material cost shall be converted at the rate on the date of the transaction. Any subsequent change in the exchange rate till payment or otherwise shall not form part of the material cost. (i) Any demurrage or detention charges, or penalty levied by transport or other authorities shall not form part of the cost of materials. (j) Subsidy or Grant or Incentive and any such payment received or receivable with respect to any material shall be reduced from cost for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (k) Issues shall be valued using appropriate assumptions on cost flow, e.g. First-in-First-out, Last-in-First-out, Weighted Average Rate. The method of valuation shall be followed on a consistent basis Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 17/68 (l) Where materials are accounted at standard cost, the price variances related to materials shall be treated as part of material cost. (m) Any abnormal cost shall be excluded from the material cost. (n) Wherever, material costs include transportation costs, determination of costs of transportation shall be governed by Para No. 9 on Determination of Cost of Transportation. (o) Self-manufactured components and sub-assemblies or captive consumption shall be valued including direct material cost, direct employee cost, direct expenses, factory overheads, share of administrative overheads relating to production but excluding share of other administrative overheads, finance cost and marketing overheads. (p) The material cost of normal scrap or defectives which are rejects shall be included in the material cost of goods manufactured. The material cost of actual scrap or defectives, not exceeding the normal shall be adjusted in the material cost of good production. Material Cost of abnormal scrap or defectives shall not be included in material cost but treated as loss after giving credit to the realisable value of such scrap or defectives. (q) Material costs shall be directly traced to a Cost object to the extent it is economically feasible or shall be assigned to the cost object on the basis of material quantity consumed or similar identifiable measure and valued as per above principles. (r) Where the material costs are not directly traceable to the cost object, the same shall be assigned on a suitable basis like technical estimates. (s) Where a material is processed or part manufactured by a third party according to specifications provided by the buyer, the processing or manufacturing charges payable to the third party shall be treated as part of the material cost. (t) Wherever part of the manufacturing operations or activity is subcontracted, the subcontract charges related to materials shall be treated as direct expenses and assigned directly to the cost object. (u) The cost of indirect materials shall be assigned to the various Cost objects based on a suitable basis such as actual usage or technical norms or a similar identifiable measure. (v) The cost of materials like catalysts, dies, tools, moulds, patterns etc., which are relatable to production over a period of time shall be amortized over the production units benefited by such cost. (w) The cost of indirect material with life exceeding one year shall be included in cost over the useful life of the material. 2. Employee Cost (a) Proper records shall be maintained in respect of employee costs in such a manner as to enable the company to book these expenses cost centre wise or department wise with reference to goods or services under reference and to furnish necessary particulars. Where the employees work in such a manner that it is not possible to identify them with any specific cost centre or service centre or department, the employees cost shall be Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 18/68 apportioned to the cost centre or service centres or departments on equitable and reasonable basis and applied consistently. (b) Employee cost shall be ascertained taking into account the gross pay including all allowances payable along with the cost to the employer of all the benefits. (c) Bonus whether payable as a statutory minimum or on a sharing of surplus shall be treated as part of employee cost. Ex gratia payable in lieu of or in addition to bonus shall also be treated as part of the employee cost. (d) Remuneration payable to Managerial Personnel including Executive Directors on the Board and other officers of a corporate body under a statute shall be considered as part of the employee cost of the year under reference whether the whole or part of the remunerate is computed as a percentage of profits. Remuneration paid to non executive directors shall not form part of employee cost but shall form part of administrative overheads. (e) Separation costs related to voluntary retirement, retrenchment, termination and other related matters shall be amortised over the period benefitting from such costs. (f) Employee cost shall not include imputed costs. (g) Cost of Idle time is ascertained by the idle hours multiplied by the hourly rate applicable to the idle employee or a group of employees. (h) Where employee cost is accounted at standard cost, variances due to normal reasons related to employee cost shall be treated as part of employee cost. Variances due to abnormal reasons shall be treated as part of abnormal cost. (i) Any subsidy, grant, incentive or any such payment received or receivable with respect to any employee cost shall be reduced for ascertainment of cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (j) Any abnormal cost where it is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the employee cost. (k) Penalties, damages paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the employee cost. (l) The cost of free housing, free conveyance and any other similar benefits provided to an employee shall be determined at the total cost of all resources consumed in providing such benefits. (m) Any recovery from the employee towards any benefit provided, namely, housing shall be reduced from the employee cost. (n) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the determination of the employee cost shall be made only if it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an enterprise. (o) Where the employee services are traceable to a cost object, such employees' cost shall be assigned to the cost object on the basis such as time consumed or number of employees engaged or other related basis or similar identifiable measure. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 19/68 (p) While determining whether a particular employee cost is chargeable to a separate cost object, the principle of materiality shall be adhered to. (q) Where the employee costs are not directly traceable to the cost object, the same shall be assigned on suitable basis like estimates of time based on time study. (r) The amortised separation costs related to voluntary retirement, retrenchment, and termination or other related matters for the period shall be treated as indirect cost and assigned to the cost objects in an appropriate manner provided that unamortized amount related to discontinue operations, shall not be treated as employee cost. (s) Recruitment costs, training cost and other such costs shall be treated as overheads and dealt with accordingly. (t) Overtime premium shall be assigned directly to the cost object or treated as overheads depending on the economic feasibility and the specific circumstance requiring such overtime. (u) Idle time cost shall be assigned direct to the cost object or treated as overheads depending on the economic feasibility and the specific circumstances causing such idle time. 3. Utilities (a) Proper records shall be maintained showing the quantity and cost of each major utility such as power, water, steam, effluent treatment and other related utilities produced and consumed by the different cost centres in such detail as to have particulars for each utility separately. (b) Each type of utility shall be treated as a distinct cost object. (c) Cost of utilities purchased shall be measured at cost of purchase including duties and taxes, transportation cost, insurance and other expenditure directly attributable to procurement (net of trade discounts, rebates, taxes and duties refundable or to be credited) that can be quantified with reasonable accuracy at the time of acquisition. (d) Cost of self-generated utilities for own consumption shall comprise direct material cost, direct employee cost, direct expenses and factory overheads. (e) In case of utilities generated for the purpose of inter unit transfers, the distribution cost incurred for such transfers shall be added to the cost of utilities determined as above. (f) Cost of utilities generated for the intercompany transfers shall comprise direct material cost, direct employee cost, direct expenses, factory overheads, distribution cost and share of administrative overheads. (g) Cost of utilities generated for the sale to outside parties shall comprise direct material cost, direct employee cost, direct expenses, factory overheads, distribution cost, share of administrative overheads and marketing overheads. The sale value of such utilities shall also include the margin. (h) Finance costs incurred in connection with the utilities shall not form part of cost of utilities Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 20/68 (i) The cost of utilities shall include the cost of distribution of such utilities. The cost of distribution shall consist of the cost of delivery of utilities up to the point of consumption. (j) Cost of utilities shall not include imputed costs. (k) Where cost of utilities is accounted at standard cost, the price variances related to utilities shall be treated as part of cost of utilities and the portion of usage variances due to normal reasons shall be treated as part of cost of utilities Usage variances due to abnormal reasons shall be treated as part of abnormal cost. (l) Any subsidy or grant or incent.ve or any such payment received or receivable with respect to any cost of utilities shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost to which such amounts are related. (m) The cost of production and distribution of utilities shall be determined based on the normal capacity or actual capacity utilization whichever is higher and unabsorbed cost, if any, shall be treated as abnormal cost. Cost of a Stand-by Utility shall include the committed costs of maintaining such a utility. (n) Any abnormal cost where it is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the cost of utilities (o) Penalties damages paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the cost of utilities. (p) Credits or recoveries relating to the utilities including cost of utilities provided to outside parties material and quantifiable, shall be deducted from the total cost of utility to arrive at the net cost of 'utility. (q) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the cost of utilities shall be made only if. it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organization. (r) While assigning cost of utilities, traceabi.ity to a cost object in an economically feasible manner shall be the guiding principle. (s) Where the cost of utilities is not directly traceable to cost object, it shall be assigned on the most appropriate basis. (t) The most appropriate basis of distribution of cost of a utility to the departments consuming services is to be derived from usage parameters. 4. Direct Expenses (a) Proper records shall be maintained in respect of direct expenses in such a manner as to enable the company to book these expenses cost centre wise or cost object or department wise with reference to goods or services under reference and to furnish necessary particulars. (b) Direct expenses incurred for the use of bought out resources shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable there to net of trade discounts, rebates, taxes and duties refundable or to be credited. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 21/68 (c) Other direct expenses shall be determined on the basis of amount incurred, in connection therewith. (d) Direct expenses paid or incurred in lump- sum or which are in the nature of „one- time‟ payment, shall be amortised on the basis of the estimated output or benefit to be derived from such direct expenses. (e) If an item of direct expenses does not meet the test of materiality, it can be treated as part of overheads. (f) Finance costs incurred in connection with the self- generated or procured resources shall not form part of direct expenses. Direct expenses shall not include imputed costs. (g) Where direct expenses are accounted at standard cost, variances due to normal reasons shall be treated as part of the direct expenses. Variances due to abnormal reasons shall not form part of the direct expenses. (h) Any subsidy or grant or incentive or any such payment received or receivable with respect to any direct expenses shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (i) Any abnormal portion of the direct expenses where it is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the direct expenses. (j) Penalties, damages paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the direct expenses. (k) Credits recoveries relating to the direct expenses, material and quantifiable, shall be deducted to arrive at the net direct expenses. (l) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the direct expenses shall be made only if, it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organisation. (m) Direct expenses that are directly traceable to the cost object shall be assigned to that cost object. 5. Repairs and Maintenance.- (a) Proper records showing the expenditure incurred by the workshop, tool room and on repairs and maintenance in the various cost centres or departments shall be maintained under different heads. (b) Repairs and maintenance cost shall be the aggregate of direct and indirect cost relating to repairs and maintenance activity. Direct cost shall include the cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities and other identifiable resources consumed in such activity! Indirect cost shall include the cost of resources common to various repairs and maintenance activities such as manpower, equipment usage and other costs allocable to such activities. (c) Cost of in-house repairs and maintenance activity shall include cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, and other resources used in such activity. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 22/68 (d) Cost of repairs and maintenance activity carried out by outside contractors inside the entity shall include charges payable to the contractor and cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, and other costs incurred by the entity for such jobs. (e) Cost of repairs and maintenance jobs carried out by contractor at its premises shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable thereto net of discounts (other than cash discount), taxes and duties refundable or to be credited. This cost shall also include the cost of other resources provided to the contractors. (f) Cost of repairs and maintenance jobs carried out by outside contractors shall include charges made by the contractor and cost of own materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities and other costs used in such jobs. (g) Each type of repairs and maintenance shall be treated as a distinct activity, if material and identifiable. (h) Cost of repairs and maintenance activity shall be measured for each major asset category separately. (i) Cost of spares replaced which do not enhance the future economic benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance shall be included under repairs and maintenance cost. (j) High value spare, when replaced by a new spare and is reconditioned, which is expected to result in future economic benefits, the same shall be taken into stock. Such a spare shall be valued at an amount that measures its service potential in relation to a new spare which amount shall not exceed the cost of reconditioning the spare. The difference between the total of the cost of the new spare and the reconditioning cost and the value of the reconditioned spare shall be treated as repairs and maintenance cost. (k) The cost of major overhaul shall be amortised on a rational basis. (l) Finance costs Incurred in connection with the repairs and maintenance activities shall not form part of Repairs and maintenance costs. (m) Repairs and maintenance costs shall not include imputed costs. (n) Price variances related to repairs and maintenance, where standard costs are in use, shall be treated as part of repairs and maintenance cost. The portion of usage variances attributable to normal reasons shall be treated as part of repairs and maintenance cost. Usage variances attributable to abnormal reasons shall be excluded from repairs and maintenance cost. (o) Subsidy or Grant or Incentive or amount of similar nature received or receivable with respect to repairs and maintenance activity, if any, shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (p) Any repairs and maintenance cost resulting from some abnormal circumstances, namely, major fire, explosion, flood and similar events, if material and quantifiable, shall not form part of the repairs and maintenance cost. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 23/68 (q) Fines, penalties, damages and similar levies paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the repairs and maintenance cost. (r) Credits or recoveries relating to the repairs and maintenance activity, material and quantifiable, shall be deducted to arrive at the net repairs and maintenance cost. (s) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the repairs and maintenance cost shall be made only if, it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organisation. (t) Repairs and maintenance costs shall be traced to a cost object to the extent economically feasible. (u) Where the repairs and maintenance cost is not directly traceable to cost object, it shall be assigned based on either of the following the principles of (1) Cause and Effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost and (2) Benefits received - overheads are to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the benefits received by them. (v) If the repairs and maintenance cost (including the share of the cost of reciprocal exchange of services) is shared by several cost objects, the related cost shall be measured as an aggregate and distributed among the cost objects. 6. Fixed Assets and depreciation.- (a) Proper and adequate records shall be maintained for assets used for production of goods or rendering of services under reference in respect of which depreciation has to be provided for These records shall, inter-alia, indicate grouping of assets under each good or service, the cost of acquisition of each item of asset including installation charges, date of acquisition and rate of depreciation. (b) Depreciation and amortisation shall be measured based on the depreciable amount and the useful life. The residual value of an intangible asset shall be assumed to be zero unless: (i) there is a commitment by a third party to purchase the asset at the end of its useful life, or (ii) there is an active market for the asset and: a. residual value can be determined by reference to that market; and b. it is probable that such a market will exist at the end of the asset's useful life. c. The residual value of a fixed asset shall be considered as zero if the entity is unable to estimate the same with reasonable accuracy. (c) The minimum amount of depreciation to be provided shall not be less than the amount calculated as per principles and methods as prescribed by any law or regulations applicable to the entity and followed by it. (d) In case of regulated industry the amount of depreciation shall be the same as prescribed Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 24/68 by the concerned regulator. (e) While estimating the useful life of a depreciable asset, consideration shall be given to the following factors: (i) Expected physical wear and tear; (ii) Obsolescence; and (iii) Legal or other limits on the use of the asset. (f) The useful life of an intangible asset that arises from contractual or other legal rights shall not exceed the period of the contractual or other legal rights, but may be shorter depending on the period over which the entity expects to use the asset. (g) If the contractual or other legal rights are conveyed for a limited term that can be renewed the useful life of the intangible asset shall include the renewal period(s) only if there is evidence to support renewal by the entity without significant cost. The useful life of a re-acquired right recognised as an intangible asset in a business combination is the remaining contractual period of the contract in which the right was granted and shall not include renewal periods. (h) The useful life of an intangible asset, in any situation, shall not exceed 10 years from the date it is available for use. (i) Depreciation shall be considered from the time when a depreciable asset is first put into use An asset which is used only when the need arises but is always held ready for use. Example: fire extinguisher, stand by generator, safety equipment shall be considered to be an asset in use Depreciable assets shall be considered to be put into use when commercial production of goods and services commences. (j) Depreciation on an asset which is temporarily retired from production of goods and services shall be considered as abnormal cost for the period when the asset is not in use. (k) Depreciation of any addition or extension to an existing depreciable asset which becomes an integral part of that asset shall be based on the remaining useful life of that asset. (l) Depreciation of any addition or extension to an existing depreciable asset which retains a separate identity and is capable of being used after the expiry of the useful life of that asset shall be based on the estimated useful life of that addition or extension. (m) The impact of higher depreciation due to revaluation of assets shall not be assigned to cost object. (n) Impairment loss on assets shall be excluded from cost of production. (o) The method of depreciation used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset's future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. (p) An entity can use any of the methods of depreciation to assign depreciable amount of an asset on a systematic basis over its useful life, namely, Straight-line method; Diminishing balance method; and Units of production method, etc. (q) The method of amortisation of intangible asset shall reflect the pattern in which the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 25/68 economic benefits accrue to entity. (r) The methods and rates of depreciation applied shall be reviewed at least annually and, if there has been a change in the expected pattern of consumption or loss of future economic benefits, the method applied shall be changed to reflect the changed pattern. (s) Spares purchased specifically for a particular asset, or class of assets, and which would become redundant if that asset or class of asset was retired or use of that asset was discontinued, shall form part of that asset. The depreciable amount of such spares shall be allocated over the useful life of the asset. (t) Cost of small assets shall be written off in the period in which they were purchased as per the accounting policy of the entity. (u) Depreciation of an asset shall not be considered in case cumulative depreciation exceeds the original cost of the asset, net of residual value. (v) Where depreciation for an addition of an asset is measured on the basis of the number of days for which the asset was used for the preparation and presentation of financial statements, depreciation of the asset for assigning to cost of object shall be measured in relation to the period, the asset actually utilized. (w) Depreciation shall be traced to the cost object to the extent economically feasible. (x) Where the depreciation is not directly traceable to cost object, it shall be assigned based on either of the following two principles; namely (i) Cause and Effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost and (ii) Benefits received - overheads are to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the benefits received by them. 7. Overheads (a) Proper records shall be maintained for various items of indirect expenses comprising overheads pertaining to goods or services under reference. These expenses shall be analysed, classified and grouped according to functions. (b) Overheads representing procurement of resources shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable thereto net of discounts (other than cash discounts), taxes and duties refundable or to be credited. (c) Overheads other than those referred to above shall be determined on the basis of cost incurred in connection therewith. (d) Any abnormal cost where it Is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the overheads. (e) Finance costs incurred In connection with procured or self-generated resources shall not form part of overheads. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 26/68 (f) Overheads shall not include imputed cost. (g) Overhead variances attributable to normal reasons shall be treated as part of overheads. Overhead variances attributable to abnormal reasons shall be excluded from overheads. (h) Any subsidy or grant or incentive or amount of similar nature received or receivable with respect to overheads shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (i) Fines, penalties, damages and similar levies paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the overheads. (j) Credits or recoveries relating to the overheads, material and quantifiable, shall be deducted from the total overhead to arrive at the net overheads. Where the recovery exceeds the total overheads, the balance recovery shall be treated as other income. (k) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the overheads shall be made only if, it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an entity. (l) While assigning overheads, traceability to a cost object in an economically feasible manner shall be the guiding principle. The cost which can be traced directly to a cost object shall be directly assigned. (m) Overheads shall be classified according to functions, viz., works, administration, selling and distribution, head office, corporate etc. (n) Assignment of overheads to the cost objects shall be based on either of the following two principles; (1) Cause and Effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost and (2) Benefits received - overheads are to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the benefits received by them. (o) The variable production overheads shall be absorbed to products or services based on actual capacity utilisation. (p) The fixed production overheads shall be absorbed based on the normal capacity. (q) Assignment of Administration Overheads shall be in accordance with para No. 8. (r) Marketing overheads that can be identified to a product or service shall be assigned to that product or service. (s) Marketing overheads that cannot be identified to a product or service shall be assigned to the products or services on the most appropriate basis. 8. Administrative Overheads (a) Administrative overheads shall be the aggregate of cost of resources consumed in activities relating to general management and administration of an organisation. (b) In case of leased assets, if the lease is an operating lease, the entire rentals shall be included in the administrative overheads. If the lease is a financial lease, the finance cost portion shall be segregated and treated as part of finance costs. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 27/68 (c) The cost of software (developed in house, purchased, licensed or customised), including up-gradation cost shall be amortised over its estimated useful life. (d) The cost of administrative services procured from outside shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable thereto net of discounts (other than cash discount), taxes and duties refundable or to be credited. (e) Any subsidy or grant or incentive or any amount of similar nature received or receivable with respect to any Administrative overheads shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (f) Administrative overheads shall not include any abnormal administrative cost. (g) Fines, penalties, damages and similar levies paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the administrative overheads. (h) Credits or recoveries relating to the administrative overheads including those rendered without any consideration, material and quantifiable, shall be deducted to arrive at the net administrative overheads. (i) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the administrative overheads shall be made only if it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organisation. (j) While assigning administrative overheads, traceability to a cost object in an economically feasible manner shall be the guiding principle. (k) Assignment of administrative overheads to the cost objects shall be based on either of the following two principles; namely: - (i) Cause and Effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost. (ii) Benefits received - overheads are to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the benefit received by them. 9. Transportation Cost (a) Proper records shall be maintained for recording the actual cost of transportation showing each element of cost such as freight, cartage, transit insurance and others after adjustment for recovery of transportation cost. Abnormal costs relating to transportation, if any, are to be identified and recorded for exclusion of computation of average transportation cost. (b) In case of a manufacturer having his own transport fleet, proper records shall be maintained to determine the actual operating cost of vehicles showing details of various elements of cost, such as salaries and wages of driver, cleaners and others, cost of fuel, lubricant grease, amortized cost of tyres and battery, repairs and maintenance, depreciation of the vehicles, distance covered and trips made, goods hauled and transported to the depot. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 28/68 (c) In case of hired transport charges incurred for despatch of goods, complete details shall be recorded as to date of despatch, type of transport used, description of the goods, destination of buyer, name of consignee, challan number, quantity of goods in terms of weight or volume, distance involved amount paid and other related details. (d) Records shall be maintained separately for inward and outward transportation cost specifying the details particulars of goods despatched, name of supplier or recipient, amount of freight etc. (e) Separate records shall be maintained for identification of transportation cost towards inward movement of material (procurement) and transportation cost of outward movement of goods removed or sold for both home consumption and export. (f) Records for transportation cost from factory to depot and thereafter shall be maintained separately. (g) Records for transportation cost for carrying any material or product to job-workers place and back shall be maintained separately so as include the same in the transaction value of the product. (h) Records for transportation cost for goods involved exclusively for trading activities shall be maintained separately and the same shall not be included for claiming any deduction for calculating assessable value excisable goods cleared for home consumption. (i) Records of transportation cost directly allocable to a particular category of products shall be maintained separately so that allocation can be made. (j) For common transportation cost, both for own fleet or hired ones, proper records for basis of apportionment shall be maintained. (k) Records for transportation cost for exempted goods, excisable goods cleared for export shall be maintained separately. (l) Separate records of cost for mode of transportation other than road like ship or air are to be maintained, which shall be included in total cost of transportation. (m) Inward transportation costs shall form the part of the cost of procurement of materials which shall be identified for proper allocation or apportionment to the materials or products. (n) Outward transportation cost shall form the part of the cost of sale and shall be allocated or apportioned to the materials and goods on a suitable basis. (o) The following basis shall be used, in order of priority, for apportionment of outward transportation cost depending upon the nature of products, unit of measurement followed and type of transport used, namely (i) Weight; (ii) Volume of goods; (iii) Tonne- km; (iv) Unit or Equivalent unit; (v) Value of goods; Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 29/68 (vi) Percentage of usage of space. (p) Once a basis of apportionment is adopted, the same shall be followed consistently. (q) For determining the transportation cost per unit, distance shall be factored in to arrive at weighted average cost. (r) Abnormal and non recurring cost shall not be a part of transportation cost. 10. Royalty and Technical Know-how.- (a) Adequate records shall be maintained showing royalty or technical know-how fee including other recurring or non-recurring payments of similar nature, if any, made for the goods or services under reference to collaborators or technology suppliers in terms of agreements entered into with them. (b) Royalty and technical know-how Fee paid or incurred in lump-sum or which are in the nature of 'one-time' payment, shall be amortised on the basis of the estimated output or benefit to be derived from the related asset. Amortisation of the amount of royalty or technical know- how fee paid for which the benefit is ensued in the current or future periods shall be determined based on the production or service volumes estimated for the period over which the asset is expected to benefit the entity. (c) Amount of the royalty and technical know-how fee shall not include finance costs and imputed costs. (d) Any subsidy or grant or incentive or any such payment received or receivable with respect to amount of royalty and technical know-how fee shall be reduced to measure the amount of royalty and technical know- how fee. (e) Penalties, damages paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the amount of royalty and technical know-how fee. (f) Credits or recoveries relating to the amount royalty and technical know-how fee, material and quantifiable, shall be deducted to arrive at the net amount of royalty and technical know-how fee. (g) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the amount of royalty and technical know-how fee shall be made only if, it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organisation. (h) Royalty and technical know-how fee that is directly traceable to a cost object shall be assigned to that cost object. In case such fee is not directly traceable to a cost object then it shall be assigned on any of the following basis, namely: - (i) Units produced; (ii) Units sold; or (iii) Sales value. (i) The amount of royalty fee paid for mining rights shall form part of the cost of material. (j) The amount of royalty and technical know-how fee shall be assigned on the nature or Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 30/68 purpose of such fee. The amount of royalty and technical know-how fee related to product or process know how shall be treated as cost of production; if related to trademarks or brands shall be treated as cost of sales. 11. Research and Development Expenses (a) Research and development costs shall include all the costs that are directly traceable to research or development activities or that can be assigned to research and development activities strictly on the basis of (a) cause and effect or (b) benefits received Such costs shall include the following elements, namely:- (i) the cost of materials and services consumed in research and development activities; (ii) cost of bought out materials and hired services as per invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes directly attributable thereto net of trade discounts, rebates, taxes and duties refundable or to be credited; (iii) the salaries, wages and other related costs of personnel engaged in research and development activities; (iv) the depreciation of equipment and facilities, and other tangible assets, and amortisation of intangible assets to the extent that they are used for research and development activities; (v) overhead costs, other than general administrative costs, related to research and development activities; (vi) costs incurred for carrying out research and development activities by other entities and charged to the entity; (vii) expenditure incurred in securing copyrights or licences; (viii) expenditure incurred for developing computer software; (ix) costs incurred for the design of tools, jigs, moulds and dies; and (x) other costs that can be directly attributed to research and development activities and can be identified with specific projects. (b) Subsidy or grant or incentive or amount of similar nature received or receivable with respect to research and development activity, if any, shall be reduced from the cost of such research, and development activity. (c) Any abnormal cost where it is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the research and development cost. (d) Fines, penalties, damages and similar levies paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the research and development cost. (e) Research and development costs shall not include imputed costs. (f) Credits or recoveries relating to research and development cost, if material and quantifiable, including from the sale of output produced from the research and development activity shall be deducted from the research and development cost. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 31/68 (g) Research and development costs attributable to a specific cost object shall be assigned to that cost object directly. Research and development costs that are not attributable to a specific product or process shall not form part of the product cost. (h) Development cost which results in the creation of an intangible asset shall be amortised over its useful life. Assignment of development costs shall be based on the principle of "benefits received". (i) Research and development costs incurred for the development and improvement of an existing process or product shall be included in the cost of production. In case the Research and development activity related to the improvement of an existing process or product continues for more than one accounting period, the cost of the same shall be accumulated and amortised over the estimated period of use of the improved process or estimated period over which the improved product shall be produced by the entity after the commencement of commercial production, as the case may be, if the improved process or product is distinctly different from the existing process or product and the product is marketed as a new product. The amount allocated to a particular period shall be included in the cost of production of that period. If the expenditure is only to improve the quality of the existing product or minor modifications in attributes, the principle shall not be applied. (j) Development costs attributable to a saleable service namely, providing technical know-how to outside parties shall be accumulated separately and treated as cost of providing the service. 12. Quality control expenses (a) Adequate records shall be maintained to indicate the expenses incurred in respect of quality control department or cost centre or service centre for goods or services under reference. Where these services are also utilized for other goods or services of the company, the basis of apportionment to goods or services under reference and to other goods or services shall be on equitable and reasonable basis and applied consistently. (b) Quality control cost incurred in-house shall be the aggregate of the cost of resources consumed in the quality control activities of the entity. The cost of resources procured from outside shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable thereto net of discounts (other than cash discounts), taxes and duties refundable or to be credited by the Tax Authorities. Such cost shall include cost of conformance to quality, namely, (a) prevention cost; and (b) appraisal cost. (c) Identification of quality control costs shall be based on traceability in an economically feasible manner. (d) Quality control costs other than those referred to above shall be determined on the basis of amount incurred in connection therewith. (e) Finance costs incurred in connection with the self-generated or procured resources shall not form part of quality control cost. (f) Quality control costs shall not include imputed costs. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 32/68 (g) Any Subsidy or grant or incentive or any such payment received or receivable with respect to any quality control cost shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (h) Any abnormal portion of the quality control cost where it is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the cost of quality control. (i) Penalties, damages paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the quality control cost. (j) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the quality control cost shall be made only if, it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organisation. (k) Quality control cost that is directly traceable to the cost object shall be assigned to that cost object. Assignment of quality control cost to the cost objects shall be based on benefits received by them on the principles, namely:- (i) Cause and effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost and (ii) Benefits received - overheads are to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the benefits received by them. 13. Pollution control expenses.- (a) Adequate records shall be maintained to indicate the expenses incurred in respect of pollution control. The basis of apportionment to goods or services under reference and to other goods or services shall be on equitable and reasonable basis and applied consistently. (b) Pollution control costs shall be the aggregate of direct and indirect cost relating to pollution control activity. Direct cost shall include the cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, resources for testing and certification and other identifiable resources consumed in activities such as waste processing, disposal, remediation and others. Indirect cost shall include the cost of resources common to various pollution control activities such as pollution control registration and such like expenses. (c) Costs of pollution control which are internal to the entity shall be accounted for when incurred. They shall be measured at the historical cost of resources consumed. (d) Future remediation or disposal costs which are expected to be incurred with reasonable certainty as part of onerous contract or constructive obligation, legally enforceable shall be estimated and accounted based on the quantum of pollution generated in each period and the associated cost of remediation or disposal in future. (e) Contingent future remediation or disposal costs e.g. those likely to arise on account of future legislative changes on pollution control shall not be treated as cost until the incidence of such costs become reasonably certain and can be measured. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 33/68 (f) External costs of pollution which are generally the costs imposed on external parties including social costs are difficult to estimate with reasonable accuracy and are excluded from general purpose cost statements. (g) Social costs of pollution are measured by economic models of cost measurement. The cost by way of compensation by the polluting entity either under future legislation or under social pressure cannot be quantified by traditional models of cost measurement. They are best kept out of general purpose cost statements. (h) Cost of in-house pollution control activity shall include cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, and other resources used in such activity. (i) Cost of pollution control activity carried out by outside contractors inside the entity shall include charges payable to the contractor and cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, and other costs incurred by the entity for such jobs. (j) Cost of pollution control jobs carried out by contractor at its premises shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable thereto net of discounts (other than cash discount), taxes and duties refundable or to be credited. This cost shall also include the cost of other resources provided to the contractors. (k) Cost of pollution control jobs carried out by outside contractors shall include charges made by the contractor and cost of own materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities and other costs used in such jobs. (l) Each type of pollution control namely, water, air, soil pollution shall be treated as a distinct activity, if material and identifiable. (m) Finance costs incurred in connection with the pollution control activities shall not form part of pollution control costs. (n) Pollution control costs shall not include imputed costs. (o) Price variances related to pollution control, where standard costs are in use, shall be treated as part of pollution control cost. The portion of usage variances attributable to normal reasons shall be treated as part of pollution control cost. Usage variances attributable to abnormal reasons shall be excluded from pollution control cost. (p) Subsidy or grant or incentive or amount of similar nature received or receivable with respect to Pollution control activity, if any, shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost of the cost object to which such amounts are related. (q) Any Pollution control cost resulting from abnormal circumstances, if material and quantifiable, shall not form part of the pollution control cost. (r) Fines, penalties, damages and similar levies paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the pollution control cost. (s) Credits or recoveries relating to the pollution control activity, material and quantifiable, shall be deducted to arrive at the net pollution control cost. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 34/68 (t) Research and development cost to develop new process, new products or use of new materials to avoid or mitigate pollution shall be treated as research and development costs and not included under pollution control costs. Development costs incurred for commercial development of such product, process or material shall be included in pollution control costs. (u) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the pollution control cost shall be made only if, it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an organization. (v) Pollution Control costs shall be traced to a cost object to the extent economically feasible. (w) Direct costs of pollution control such as treatment and disposal of waste shall be assigned directly to the product, where traceable economically. (x) Where these costs are not directly traceable to the product but are traceable to a process which causes pollution, the costs shall be assigned to the products passing through the process based on the quantity of the pollutant generated by the product. (y) Where the pollution control cost is not directly traceable to cost object, it shall be treated as overhead and assigned based on either of the following two principles; namely:- (1) Cause and Effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost and (2) Benefits received - overheads are to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the benefits received by them. 14. Service department expenses.- (a) Proper records shall be maintained in respect of service departments, that is, cost centres which primarily provides auxiliary services across the enterprise, to indicate expenses incurred in respect of each such service cost centre like engineering, work shop, designing, laboratory, safety, transport, computer cell, welfare and other related centres. (b) Each identifiable service cost centre shall be treated as a distinct cost object for measurement of the cost of services subject to the principle of materiality. (c) Cost of service cost centre shall be the aggregate of direct and indirect cost attributable to services being rendered by such cost centre. (d) Cost of in-house services shall include cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, and other resources used in such service. (e) Cost of other resources shall include related overheads. (f) Cost of services rendered by contractors within the facilities of the entity shall include charges payable to the contractor and cost of materials, consumable stores, spares, manpower, equipment usage, utilities, and other resources provided to the contractors for such services. (g) Cost of services rendered by contractors at their premises shall be determined at invoice or agreed price including duties and taxes, and other expenditure directly attributable thereto net of discounts (other than cash discount), taxes and duties refundable or to be Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 35/68 credited. This cost shall also include the cost of resources provided to the contractors. (h) Cost of services for the purpose of inter unit transfers shall also include distribution costs incurred for such transfers. (i) Cost of services for the purpose of inter-company transfers shall also include distribution cost incurred for such transfers and administrative overheads. (j) Cost of services rendered to outside parties shall also include distribution cost incurred for such transfers, administrative overheads and marketing overheads. (k) Finance costs incurred in connection with the service cost Centre shall not form part of the cost of Service Cost Centre. (l) The cost of service cost centre shall not include imputed costs. (m) Where the cost of service cost centre is accounted at standard cost, the price and usage variances related to the services cost Centre shall be treated as part of cost of services. Usage variances due to abnormal reasons shall be treated as part of abnormal cost. (n) Any Subsidy or grant or incentive or any such payment received or receivable with respect to any service cost centre shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost to which such amounts are related. (o) The cost of production and distribution of the service shall be determined based on the normal capacity or actual capacity utilization whichever is higher and unabsorbed cost, if any, shall be treated as abnormal cost. Cost of a stand-by service shall include the committed costs of maintaining such a facility for the service. (p) Any abnormal cost where it is material and quantifiable shall not form part of the cost of the service cost centre. (q) Penalties, damages paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the cost of the service cost centre. (r) Credits or recoveries relating to the service cost centre including charges for services rendered to outside parties, material and quantifiable, shall be reduced from the total cost of that service cost centre. (s) Any change in the cost accounting principles applied for the measurement of the cost of Service cost centre shall be made, only if it is required by law or a change would result in a more appropriate preparation or presentation of cost statements of an enterprise. (t) While assigning cost of services, traceability to a cost object in an economically feasible manner shall be the guiding principle. (u) Where the cost of services rendered by a service cost centre is not directly traceable to a cost object, it shall be assigned on the most appropriate basis. (v) The most appropriate basis of distribution of cost of a service cost centre to the cost centres consuming services is to be derived from logical parameters related to the usage of the service rendered. The parameter shall be equitable, reasonable and consistent. 15. Packing expenses.- Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 36/68 (a) Proper records shall be maintained separately for domestic and export packing showing the quantity and cost of various packing materials and other expenses incurred on primary or secondary packing indicating the basis of valuation. (b) The packing material receipts shall be valued at purchase price including duties and taxes, freight inwards, insurance, and other expenditure directly attributable to procurement (net of trade discounts, rebates, taxes and duties refundable or to be credited) that can be quantified at the time of acquisition. (c) Finance costs directly incurred in connection with the acquisition of packing material shall not form part of packing material cost. (d) Self-manufactured packing materials shall be valued including direct material cost, direct employee cost, direct expenses, job charges, factory overheads including share of administrative overheads comprising factory management and administration and share of research and development cost incurred for development and improvement of existing process or product. (e) Normal loss or spoilage of packing material prior to receipt in the factory shall be absorbed in the cost of balance materials net of amounts recoverable from suppliers, insurers, carriers or recoveries from disposal. (f) The forex component of imported packing material cost shall be converted at the rate on the date of the transaction. Any subsequent change in the exchange rate till payment or otherwise shall not form part of the packing material cost. (g) Any demurrage, detention charges or penalty levied by the transport agency or any authority shall not form part of the cost of packing materials. (h) Any subsidy or grant or incentive or any such payment received or receivable with respect to packing material shall be reduced for ascertainment of the cost to which such amounts are related. (i) Issue of packing materials shall be valued using appropriate assumptions on cost flow, namely, First-in-First-Out, Last-in-First-Out, weighted average rate. The method of valuation shall be followed on a consistent basis. (j) Wherever, packing material costs include transportation costs, the determination of costs of transportation shall be in accordance with para No. 9 on determination of cost of transportation. (k) Packing material costs shall not include imputed costs. (l) Where packing materials are accounted at standard cost, the price variances related to such materials shall be treated as part of packing material cost and the portion of usage variances due to normal reasons shall be treated as part of packing material cost. Usage variances due to abnormal reasons shall be treated as part of abnormal cost. (m) The normal loss arising from the issue or consumption of packing materials shall be included in the packing materials cost. (n) Any abnormal cost where it is material and quantifiable shall be excluded from the packing material cost. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 37/68 (o) The credits or recoveries in the nature of normal scrap arising from packing materials if any, shall be deducted from the total cost of packing materials to arrive at the net cost of packing materials. (p) Packing material costs shall be directly traced to a cost object to the extent it is economically feasible. (q) Where the packing material costs are not directly traceable to the cost object, these may be assigned on the basis of quantity consumed or similar measures like technical estimates. (r) The packing material cost of reusable packing shall be assigned to the cost object taking into account the number of times or the period over which it is expected to be reused. (s) Cost of primary packing materials shall form part of the cost of production. (t) Cost of secondary packing materials shall form part of distribution overheads. 16. Interest and financing charges.- (a) Interest and financing charges are costs incurred by an enterprise in connection with the borrowing of fund or other costs which in effect represent payment for the use of non- equity fund. (b) Interest and financing charges incurred shall be identified for- (i) acquisition or construction or production of qualifying assets including fixed assets; and (ii) other finance costs for production of goods or operations or services rendered which cannot be classified as qualifying assets. (c) Interest and financing charges directly attributable to the acquisition or construction or production of a qualifying asset shall be included in the cost of the asset. (d) Interest and financing charges shall not include imputed costs. (e) Subsidy or grant or incentive or amount of similar nature received or receivable with respect to Interest and Financing Charges if any, shall be reduced to ascertain the net interest and financing charges. (f) Penal Interest for delayed payment, fines, penalties, damages and similar levies paid to statutory authorities or other third parties shall not form part of the interest and financing charges. In case the company delays the payment of statutory dues beyond the stipulated date, interest paid for delayed payment shall not be treated as penal interest. (g) Interest paid for or received on investment shall not form part of the other financing charges for production of goods or operations or services rendered; (h) Assignment of interest and financing charges to the cost objects shall be based on either of the following two principles; namely:- (1) Cause and Effect - Cause is the process or operation or activity and effect is the incurrence of cost and (2) Benefits received - to be apportioned to the various cost objects in proportion to the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 38/68 benefits received by them. 17. Any other item of cost.- Proper records shall be maintained for any other item of cost being indispensable and considered necessary for inclusion in cost records for calculating cost of production of goods or rendering of services, cost of sales, margin in total and per unit of the goods or services under reference. 18. Capacity determination.- (a) Capacity shall be determined in terms of units of production or equivalent machine or man hours. (b) Installed capacity is determined based on- (i) manufacturers' Technical specifications; (ii) capacities of individual or interrelated production centres; (iii) operational constraints or capacity of critical machines; or (iv) number of shifts (c) In case manufacturers' technical specifications are not available, the estimates by technical experts on capacity under ideal conditions shall be considered for determination of installed capacity. In case any production facility is added or discarded the installed capacity shall be reassessed from the date of such addition or discard In case the same is reassessed as per direction of the Government, It shall be in accordance with the principles laid down in the said directives. In case of improvement in the production process, the installed capacity shall be reassessed from the date of such improvement. (d) Normal capacity shall be determined vis-a-vis installed capacity after carrying out adjustments for (i) holidays, normal shut down days and normal idle time; (ii) normal time lost in batch change over; (iii) time lost due to preventive maintenance and normal break downs of equipments; (iv) loss in efficiency due to ageing of the equipment; or (v) number of shifts; (e) Capacity utilization is actual production measured as a percentage of installed capacity 19. Work-in-progress and finished stock The method followed for determining the cost of work-in-progress and finished stock of the goods and for services under delivery or in-process shall be appropriate and shall be indicated in the cost records so as to reveal the cost element that have been taken into Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 39/68 account in such computation. All conversion costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition shall be taken into account while computing the cost of work-in-progress and finished stock The method adopted for determining the cost of work-in progress and finished goods shall be followed consistently 20. Captive consumption If the goods or services under reference are used for captive consumption, proper records shall be maintained showing the quantity and cost of each such goods or services transferred to other departments or cost centres or units of the company for self-consumption and sold to outside parties separately. 21. By-products and Joint Products (a) Proper records shall be maintained for each item of by-product, if any, produced showing the receipt, issues and balances, both in quantity and value. The basis adopted for valuation of by-product for giving credit to the respective process shall be equitable and consistent and shall be indicated in cost records. Records showing the expenses incurred on further processing, if any, and actual sales realisation of by-product shall be maintained. The proper records shall be maintained in respect of credits or recoveries from the disposal of by-products (b) Proper records shall be maintained the cost up to the point of separation of products or services shall be apportioned to joint products or services on reasonable and equitable basis and shall be applied consistently. The basis on which such joint costs are apportioned to different products or services arising from the process shall be indicated in the cost records. Proper records shall be maintained in respect credits or recoveries from the disposal of joint products or services. 22. Adjustment of cost variances Where the company maintains cost records on any basis other than actual such as standard costing, the records shall indicate the procedure followed by the company in working out the cost of the goods or services under such system. The cost variances shall be shown against separate heads and analyzed into material, labour, overheads and further segregated into quantity, price and efficiency variances. The method followed for adjusting the cost variances in determining the actual cost of the goods or services shall be indicated clearly in the cost records. The reasons for the variances shall be duly explained in the cost records and statements. 23. Reconciliation of cost and financial accounts The cost statements shall be reconciled with the financial statements for the financial year specifically indicating the expenses or incomes not considered in the cost records or Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 40/68 statements so as to ensure accuracy and to adjust the profit of the goods or services under reference with the overall profit of the company. The variations, if any, shall be clearly indicated and explained. 24. Related party transactions (a) Related Party means related party as defined under clause (76) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013). (b) "Normal" price means price charged for comparable and similar products in the ordinary course of trade and commerce where the price charged in the sole consideration of sale and such sale is not made to a related party. Normal price can be construed to be a price at which two unrelated and non-desperate parties would agree to a transaction and where such transaction is not clouded due to the proximity of the parties to the transaction and free from influence though the parties may have shared interest. (c) The basis adopted to determine Normal price shall be classified as under: (i) Comparable uncontrolled price method; (ii) Resale price method; (iii) Cost plus method; (iv) Profit split method; (v) Transactional net margin method; or (vi) Any other method, to be specified. (d) In respect of related party transactions or supplies made or services rendered by a company to a company termed "related party relationship" and vice-a-versa, records shall be maintained showing contracts entered into, agreements or understanding reached in respect of - (i) purchase and sale of raw materials, finished goods, rendering of services, process materials and rejected goods including scraps and other related materials; (ii) utilisation of plant facilities and technical know-how; (iii) supply of utilities and any other services; (iv) administrative, technical, managerial or any other consultancy services; (v) purchase and sale of capital goods including plant and machinery; and (vi) any other payment related to the production of goods or rendering of services under reference. (e) These records shall also indicate the basis followed for arriving at the rates charged or paid for such goods or services so as to enable determination of the reasonableness of such rates in so far as they are in any way related to goods or services under reference. 25. Expenses or incentives on exports Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 41/68 (a) Proper records showing the expenses incurred on the export sales, if any, of the goods or services under reference shall be separately maintained so that the cost of export sales can be determined correctly. Separate cost statements shall be prepared for goods or services exported giving details of export expenses incurred or incentive earned. (b) Proper records shall be maintained giving the details of export commitments license-wise and the fulfillment of these commitments giving the reasons for non-compliance, if any. In case, duty free imports are made, the cost statements shall reflect this fact. If the duty free imports have been made after actual production, the statement shall reflect this fact also. 26. Production Records Quantitative records of all finished goods (packed or unpacked) or services rendered showing production, issues for sales and balances of different type of the goods or services under reference, shall be maintained. The quantitative details of production of goods or services rendered shall be maintained separately for self-produced, third party on job work, loan license basis etc. 27. Sales records Separate details of sales shall be maintained for domestic sales at control price, domestic sales at market price, export sales under advance license, export sales under other obligations, export sales at market price, and sales to related party or inter unit transfer. In case of services details of domestic delivery or sales at control price, domestic delivery or sales at market price, export delivery or sales under advance license, export delivery or sales under other obligations, export delivery or sales at market price, and delivery or sales to related party or inter unit transfer. Such details shall be maintained separately for each plant or unit wise or service centre wise for total as well as per unit sales realization. 28. Cost statements (a) Cost statements (monthly, quarterly and annually) showing quantitative information in respect of each good or service under reference shall be prepared showing details of available capacity, actual production, production as per excise records, capacity utilization (in-house), stock purchased for trading, stock and other adjustments, quantity available for sale, wastage and actual sale during current financial year and previous year. (b) Such statements shall also include details in respect of all major items of costs constituting cost of production of goods or services, cost of sales of goods or services and margin in total as well as per unit of the goods or services. The goods or services emerging from a process, which forms raw material or an input material or service for a subsequent process, shall be valued at the cost of production or cost of service up to the previous stage. (c) Cost Statements (monthly, quarterly and annually) in respect of reconciliation of indirect Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 42/68 taxes showing details of total clearances of goods or services, assessable value, duties or taxes paid, CENVAT or VAT or Service Tax credit utilized, duties or taxes recovered and interest or penalty paid. (d) If the company is operating more than one plant, factory or service centre, separate cost statements as specified above shall be prepared in respect of each plant, factory or service centre. Any other statement or information considered necessary for suitable presentation of costs and profitability of goods or services produced by the company shall also be prepared. 29. Statistical Records (a) The records regarding available machine hours or direct labour hours in different production departments and actually utilized shall be maintained for production of goods or rendering of services under reference and shortfall suitably analyzed. Suitable records for computation of idle time of machines or labour shall also be maintained and analyzed. (b) Proper records shall be maintained to enable the company to identify the capital employed, net fixed assets and working capital separately for the production of goods or rendering of services under reference and other goods or services to the extent such elements are separately identifiable. Non identifiable items shall be allocated on a suitable and reasonable basis to different goods or services. Fresh investments on fixed assets for production of goods or rendering of services under reference that have not contributed to the production of goods or rendering of services during the relevant period or year shall be indicated in the cost records. The records shall, in addition, show assets added as replacement and those added for increasing existing capacity. 30. Records of Physical Verification Records of physical verification may be maintained in respect of all items held in the stock such as raw materials, process materials, packing materials, consumables stores, machinery spares, chemicals, fuels, finished goods and fixed assets etc. Reasons for shortages or surplus arising out of such verifications and the method followed for adjusting the same in the cost of the goods or services shall be indicated in the records. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 43/68 FORM CRA-2 Form of intimation of appointment of cost auditor by the company to Central Government [Pursuant to rule 6(2)] Note - All fields marked in * are to be mandatorily filled. 1.(a) *Corporate identity number (CIN) or foreign company registration number (FCRN) of the company (b) Global location number (GLN) of company 2.(a) Name of the company (b) Address of the registered office or of the principal place of business in India of the company (c) * e -mail ID of the company (d) * Phone 3. * Good/s or service/s to which cost audit relates 4 . Details of the cost auditor appointed (a) Name of proprietorship, partnership firm or LLP appointed as cost auditor as per Board‟s resolution (b) (i) * Address Line I Line II (ii) * City (iii) * State (iv) Country (v ) * Pin code * Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 44/68 (c) * Details of the member representing the above firm (i) Name (ii) Membership number (d ) * e -mail ID of the firm or member 5. Financial year to be covered under cost audit (a) *From (DD/MM/YYYY ) (b) *To (DD/MM/YYYY ) 6. *Date of meeting of Board of Directors appointing the cost auditor (DD/MM/YYYY) 7. (a) * Is there any change in the cost auditor Yes No (b) If yes, name and address of previous auditor (c) Reasons for change of the auditor (d) Whether the previous cost auditor has been informed of the change Yes No Attachments 1. *Copy of the Board resolution of the company 2. *Optional attachment(s) - if any List of attachments Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 45/68 Verification To the best of my knowledge and belief, the information given and its attachments is correct and complete. I have been authorised by the Board of Directors' resolution number Dated (DD/MM/YYYY) to sign and submit this intimation. I am authorised to sign and submit this intimation. To be digitally signed by Any Key Managerial personnel or an officer of the company duly authorized by the Board in this behalf (in case of Indian company) or authorised representative (In case of a foreign company) * Designation * Director identification number of the director or Managing Director or manager or authorised representative. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 46/68 Form CRA-3 [Pursuant to rule 6(4) of the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014] FORM OF THE COST AUDIT REPORT I/We, ……………………........... having been appointed as Cost Auditor(s) under section 148(3}of the Companies Act, 2013(18 of 2013) of…………………(mention name of the company) having its registered office at………………………(mention registered office address of the company) (hereinafter referred to as the company), have audited the Cost Records maintained under section 148 of the said Act, in compliance with the cost auditing standards, in respect of the………………….(mention name (s) of Product(s)/service(s)] for the period/year………………..(mention the financial year) maintained by the company and report, in addition to my/our observations and suggestions in para 2. (i) I/We have/have not obtained all the information and explanations, which to the best of my/our knowledge and belief were necessary for the purpose of this audit. (ii) In my/our opinion, proper cost records, as per rule 5 of the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 have/have not been maintained by the company in respect of product(s)/service(s) under reference. (iii) In my/our opinion, proper returns adequate for the purpose of the cost audit have/have not been received from the branches not visited by me/us. (iv) In my/our opinion and to the best of my/our information, the said books and records give/do not give the information required by the Companies Act, 2013, in the manner so required. (v) In my/our opinion, the company has/does not have adequate system of internal audit of cost records which to my/our opinion is commensurate to its nature and size of its business. (vi) In my/our opinion, information, statements in the annexure to this cost audit report gives/does not give a true and fair view of the cost of production of product(s)/rendering of service(s), cost of sales, margin and other information relating to product(s)/service(s) under reference. (vii) Detailed unit-wise and product/service-wise cost statements and schedules thereto in respect of the product /service under reference of the company duly audited and certified by me/us are/are not kept in the company. 2. Observations and suggestions, if any, of the Cost Auditor, relevant to the cost audit. Dated: this………….day of ………….20…. at…………(mention name of place of signing this report) SIGNATURE AND SEAL OF THE COST AUDITOR (S) MEMBERSHIP NUMBER (S) Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 47/68 Notes: (1) Delete words not applicable. (2) If as a result of the examination of the books of account, the cost auditor desires to point out any material deficiency or give a qualified report, he/she shall indicate the same against the relevant para (i) to (vi) In the prescribed form of the Cost Audit Report giving details of discrepancies he/she has come across. (3) The report, suggestions, observations and conclusions given by the cost auditor under this paragraph shall be based on verified data, reference to which shall be made here and shall, wherever practicable, be included after the company has been afforded an opportunity to comment on them. Annexure to the Cost Audit Report PART - A 1. General Information 1 Corporate identity number or foreign company registration number 2 Name of company 3 Address of registered office or of principal place of business in India of company 4 Address of corporate office o' company 5 Email address of company 6 Date of beginning of reporting Financial Year dd/mm/yyyy 7 Date of end of reporting Financial Year dd/mm/yyyy 8 Date of beginning of previous financial year dd/mm/yyyy 9 Date of end of previous financial year dd/mm/yyyy 10 Level of rounding used in cost statements Absolute/thousan ds/lacs/crores 11 Reporting currency of entity INR 12 Number of cost auditors for reporting period 13 Date of board of directors meeting In which annexure to cost audit report was approved 14 Whether cost auditors report has been qualified or has any reservations or contains adverse remarks 15 Consolidated qualifications, reservations or adverse remarks of all cost auditors 16 Consolidated observations or suggestions of all cost auditors Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 48/68 17 Whether company has related party transactions for sale or purchase of goods or services 2. General Details of Cost Auditor 1 Whether cost auditor is lead auditor 2 Category of cost auditor 3 Firm's registration number 4 Name of cost auditor/cost auditor's firm 5 PAN of cost auditor/cost auditor's firm 6 Address of cost auditor or cost auditor's firm 7 Email id of cost auditor or cost auditor's firm 8 Membership number of member signing report 9 Name of member signing report 10 Name(s) of product(s) or service(s) with CETA heading 11 SRN number of Form 23C / CRA 2 12 Number of audit committee meeting attended by cost auditor during year 13 Date of signing cost audit report and annexure by cost auditor 14 Place of signing cost audit report and annexure by cost auditor 3. Cost Accounting Policy.- (1) Briefly describe the cost accounting policy adopted by the Company and its adequacy or otherwise to determine correctly the cost of production/operation, cost of sales, sales realization and margin of the product(s)/service(s) under reference separately for each product(s)/service(s). The policy shall cover, inter alia, the following areas: (a) Identification of cost centres/cost objects and cost drivers. (b) Accounting for material cost including packing materials, stores and spares, employee cost, utilities and other relevant cost components. (c) Accounting, allocation and absorption of overheads. (d) Accounting for depreciation/amortization. (e) Accounting for by-products/joint-products or services, scarps, wastage etc. (f) Basis for Inventory Valuation. (g) Methodology for valuation of Inter-Unit/Inter Company and Related Party transactions. (h) Treatment of abnormal and non-recurring costs including classification of other Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 49/68 non-cost items. (i) Other relevant cost accounting policy adopted by the Company. (2) Briefly specify the changes, if any, made In the cost accounting policy for the product(s)/service(s) under audit during the current financial year as compared to the previous financial year. (3) Observations of the Cost Auditor regarding adequacy or otherwise of the Budgetary Control System, if any, followed by the company. 4. PRODUCT/SERVICE DETAILS (for the company as a whole) Name of Product(s) /Services) UOM CETA heading (wherever applicable) Whether Covered under Cost Audit Yes / No Net Operational Revenue (net of taxes, duties etc.) Current Year ` Previous Year ` 1. 2. 3. 4. …………… Total net revenue from operations Other Incomes of company Total revenue as per financial accounts Extra ordinary income, if any Total revenue including extra ordinary income, if any Turnover as per Excise/Service Tax Records Note: Explain the difference, if any, between Turnover as per Annual Accounts and Turnover as per Excise/Service Tax Records Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 50/68 PART-B For Manufacturing Sector 1. QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION (for each product with CETA heading separately) Name of Product CETA heading Particulars Unit Current Year Previous Tear 1. Available Capacity (a) Installed Capacity (b) Capacity enhanced during the year, if any (c) Capacity available through leasing arrangements, if any (d) Capacity available through loan license / third parties (e) Total available Capacity 2. Actual Production (a) Self manufactured (b) Produced under leasing arrangements (c) Produced on loan license / by third parties on job work (d) Total Production 3. Production as per Excise Records 4. Capacity Utilization (in-house) 5. Finished Goods Purchased (a) Domestic Purchase of Finished Goods (b) Imports of Finished Goods (c) Total Finished Goods Purchased 6. Stock and Other Adjustments (a) Change in Stock of Finished Goods (b) Self / Captive Consumption (incl. samples etc ) (c) Other Quantitative Adjustments, if any (wastage etc.) (d) Total Adjustments 7. Total Available Quantity for Sale [2(d) +5(c) + 6(d)] 8. Actual Sales (a) Domestic Sales of Product Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 51/68 (b) Domestic Sales of Traded Product (c) Export Sale of Product (d) Export Sale of Traded Product (e) Total Quantity Sold 2. ABRIDGED COST STATEMENT (for each product with CETA heading separately) Name of Product CETA heading Unit of Measure Production Finished Goods Purchased Finished Stock Adjustment Captive Consumption Other Adjustment s Quantity Sold Current Year Previous Year , Sl no. Particulars Current Year Previous Year Amount (`) Rate per Unit (`) Amount (`) Rate per Unit (`) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Materials Consumed (specify details as per para 2A) Process Materials/chemicals Utilities (specify details as per 28) Direct Employees Cost Direct Expenses Consumable Stores and Spares Repairs and Maintenance Quality Control Expenses Research and Development Expenses Technical know-how Fee / Royalty Depreciation/Amortization Other Production Overheads Industry Specific Operating Expenses (specify details as per para 2C) Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 52/68 14 15 16 17 Total (1 to 13) Increase/Decrease in Work-in-Progress less: Credits for Recoveries, if any Primary Packing Cost 18 19 Cost of Production/Operations (14 + 15 to 17) Cost of Finished Goods Purchased 20 21 22 23 Total Cost of Production and Purchases (18 +19) Increase/Decrease in Stock of Finished Goods Less: Self/Captive Consumption (incl. Samples, etc.) Other Adjustments (if any) 24 25 26 27 Cost of Production/Operation of Product Sold (20 + 21 to 23) Administrative Overheads Secondary Packing Cost Selling and Distribution Overheads 28 29 Cost of Sales before interest (24 to 27) Interest and Financing Charges 30 31 Cost of sales (28 + 29) Net sales Realization (net of taxes and Duties) 32 Margin (Profit/Loss) as per Cost Accounts] (31 – 30) Notes: 1. Separate cost statement shall be prepared for each CETA heading representing the product. 2. In case the same product has different unit of measure, separate cost statement shall be provided for different unit of measures. 3. The Items of cost shown In the Proforma are Indicative and the same shall be reflected keeping In mind the materiality of the item of cost in the product. The Proforma may be suitably modified to meet the requirement of the industry/product. 4. In case the company follows a pre-determined or standard costing system, the above cost statement shall reflect figures at actuals after adjustment of variances, if any. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 53/68 2A. Details of Materials Consumed Name of Product CETA heading Description of Material Category UOM Current Year Previous Year Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Category: Indigenous/ Imported/ Self Manufactured 2B. Details of Utilities Consumed Name of Product CETA heading Description of Material UOM Current Year Previous Year Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 54/68 7. 8. 9. 10. 2C. Details of Industry Specific Operating Expenses Name of Product CETA heading Description of Industry Specific Operating Expenses Current Year Previous Year Amount Amount 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 55/68 PART-C For Service Sector 1. QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION (for each service separately) Name of Service Service Code (if applicable) Particulars Unit of Measurement Current Year Previous Year 1. Available Capacity (a) Installed Capacity (b) Capacity enhanced during the year, if any (c) Total available Capacity 2. Actual Services Provided (a) Own Services (b) Services under contractual arrangements (c) Outsourced Services (d) Total Services 3. Total Services provided as per Service Ta* Records 4. Capacity Utilization (in house) 5. Actual Sates (a) Services rendered - Domestic (b) Services rendered - Export (c) Total Services Rendered 2. ABRIDGED COST STATEMENT (for each service separately) Name of Service Service Code (If applicable) Unit of Measure Services Provided Captive Consumption Other Adjustments Services rendered Current Year Previous Year Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 56/68 Sl. no. Particulars Current Year Previous Year Amount (`) Rate per Unit (`) Amount (`) Rate per Unit (`) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Materials Consumed (specify details as per Para 2A) Utilities (specify details as per Para 2B) Direct Employees Cost Direct Expenses Consumable Stores and Spares Repairs and Maintenance Quality Control Expenses Research and Development Expenses Technical know- how Fee / Royalty Depreciation/Amortization Other Overheads Industry Specific Operating Expenses (specify details as per Para 2 C) 13 14 Total (1 to 12) Less: Credits for Recoveries, if any 15 16 Cost of Services provided (13 - 14) Cost of Outsourced/Contractual Services 17 18 19 Total Services available Less: Self/Captive Consumption Other Adjustments (if any) 20 21 22 Cost of Services Sold (17 - 18 + 19) Administrative Overheads Selling and Distribution Overheads 23 24 Cost of Sales before Interest (20+21+22) Interest and Financing Charges 25 26 Cost of Sales (23 + 24) Net Sales Realization (Net of Taxes and Duties) 27 Margin (Profit/(Loss) as per Cost Accounts) (26 - 25) Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 57/68 NOTES: 1. Separate cost statement shall be prepared for each service 2. The items of cost shown in the Proforma are Indicative and the same shall be reflected keeping in mind the materiality of the Item of cost in the service. 3. The Proforma may be suitably modified to meet the requirement of the industry/service. 4. In case the company follows a pre-determined or standard costing system, the above cost statement shall reflect figures at actuals after adjustment of variances, if any. 2A. Details of Materials Consumed Name of Service Service Code (if applicable) Description of Material Category UOM Current Year Previous Year Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Category Indigenous/ Imported/ Self Manufactured 2B. Details of Utilities Consumed Name of Service Service Code (if applicable) Description of Material UOM Current Year Previous Year Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount Quantity Rate per Unit (`) Amount 1. 2. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 58/68 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 2C. Details of Industry Specific Operating Expenses Name of Service Service Code (if applicable) Description of Industry Specific Operating Expenses Current Year Previous Year Amount Amount 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 59/68 PART-D 1. PRODUCT AND SERVICE PROFITABILITY STATEMENT (for audited products/services) Sl. no. Particulars Current Year Previous Year Sales ` Cost of Sales ` Margin ` Sales ` Cost of Sales ` Margin ` Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 ...... etc. Service 1 Service 2 Service 3 ..... etc. Total 2. PROFIT RECONCILIATION (for the company as a whole) Sl. no. Particulars Current Year ` Previous Year ` 1 Profit or Loss as per Cost Accounting Records (a) For the audited product(s)/service(s) (b) For the un-audited product(s)/servlce(s) 2 Add: Incomes not considered in cost accounts (specify details) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 60/68 h) i) j) 3 Less: Expenses not considered in cost accounts (specify details) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 4 Difference In Valuation of stock between financial accounts and cost accounts 5 Other adjustments, if any 6 Profit or Loss as per Financial Accounts Note: Show abnormal wastages, expenses on strikes/lock-outs and any other items of expenses or incomes of abnormal nature etc. not considered in cost separately 3. VALUE ADDITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF EARNINGS (for the company as a whole) Sl. no. Particulars Current Year ` Previous Year ` Value Addition: 1 Gross Sales (excluding sales returns) 2 Less: Excise duty, etc. 3 Net Sales 4 Add: Export Incentives 5 Add/less: Adjustment In Finished Stocks 6 Less: Cost of bought out inputs Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 61/68 (a) Cost of Materials Consumed (b) Process Materials / Chemicals (c) Consumption of Stores and Spares (d) Utilities (e.g. power and fuel) (e) Others, if any Total Cost of bought out inputs 7 Value Added 8 Add: Income from any other sources 9 Add: Extra Ordinary Income 10 Earnings available for distribution Distribution of Earnings to: 1 Employees as salaries and wages, retirement benefits, etc. 2 Shareholders as dividend 3 Company as retained funds 4 Government as taxes (specify) 5 Extra Ordinary Expenses 6 Others, if any (specify) 7 Total distribution of earnings 4. FINANCIAL POSITION AND RATIO ANALYSIS (for the company as a whole) Sl. no. Particulars Unite Current Year Previous Year A. Financial Position 1 Share Capital 2 Reserves and Surplus 3 Long Term Borrowings 4 (a) Gross Assets (b) Net Assets 5 (a) Current Assets (b) Less: Current Liabilities (c) Net Current Assets 6 Capital Employed Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 62/68 7 Net Worth B. 1 2 3 Financial Performance Value Added Net revenue from Operations of company Profit before Tax (PBT) C. 1 2 3 4 Profitability ratios PBT to Capital Employed (B3/A6) PBT to Net worth (B3/ A7) PBT to Value Added (B3/B4) PBT to net revenue from Operations (B3/B2) % % % % D. 1 2 3 Other Financial Ratios Debt- equity Ratio Current Assets to Current Liabilities Value Added to Net revenue from Operations % E. 1 2 3 Working Capital ratios Raw materials Stock to Consumption Stores and spares to Consumption Finished Goods Stock to cost of sales Months Months Months Note. 1 Capital Employed means average of net fixed assets (excluding effect of revaluation of fixed assets) plus Non-current investments and net current assets existing at the beginning and close of the financial year. Note.-2 Net Worth is as defined under clause (57) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013. 5. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS (for the company as a whole) Sl. no. Name and Address of the Related Party Name of The Product / Service Nature of Transaction (Sale, Purchase etc.) Quantity Transfer Price Amount Normal Price Basis adopted to determine the Normal Price 1 2 3 4 Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 63/68 5 6 7 8 9 10 NOTE. 1 Details shall be furnished for each Related Party and Product /Service separately. NOTE. 2 Details of Related Party transactions without Indicating the Normal Price and the basis thereof shall be considered as incomplete Information. 6. Reconciliation of Indirect Taxes (for the Company as a whole) Particulars Assessable Value ` Excise Duty ` Service Tax ` Cess and Others ` VAT ` Duties/Taxes Payable Excise Duty 1 Domestic 2 Export 3 Stock Transfers (Net) 4 Duty Free Clearance, Others etc. 5 Total Excise Duty (1 to 4) 6 Service Tax 7 VAT, CST etc. 8 Other State Taxes, if any 9 Total Duties/Taxes Payable (5 to 8) Duties/Taxes Paid 10 Cenvat/VAT Credit Utillised- Inputs 11 Cenvat/VAT Credit Utllised – Capital Goods 12 Cenvat/VAT Credit Utillised – Input Services 13 Cenvat/VAT Credit Utilised – Others 14 Total (10 to 13) 15 Paid through PLA/Cash Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 64/68 16 Total Duties/Taxes paid (14 + 15) 17 Duties/Taxes recovered 18 Difference between Duties/Taxes paid and recovered 19 Interest/Penalty/Fines Paid Note: Provide separate amounts in notes in respect of item 4 above. SIGNATURE SIGNATURE SIGNATURE NAME NAME NAME COST AUDITOR COMPANY SECRETARY/DIRECTOR DIRECTOR MEMBERSHIP NO. MEMBERSHIP/DIN NUMBER DIN NUMBER SEAL STAMP STAMP DATE DATE DATE Note. (1) Wherever, there is any significant variation in the current year‟s figure over the previous year‟s figure for any item shown under each para of the Annexure to the Cost Audit Report, reasons thereof shall be given by the Cost Auditor. (2) Wherever, duration of the current year or the previous year is not 12 (twelve) months, same shall be clearly indicated in the Report. Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 65/68 Form for filing Cost Audit Report with the FORM CRA - 4 Central Government [Pursuant to Rule 6(6)of the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014] PART I – GENERAL INFORMATION Note - All fields marked in * are to be mandatorily filled. 1.(a) *Corporate identity number (CIN) or foreign company registration number (FCRN) of the company (b) Global location number (GLN) of company 2.(a) *Name of the company (b) *Address of the registered office or of the principal place of business in India of the company (c) * e -mail ID of the company From (DD/MM/YY) To (DD/MM/YY) 3 (a) *Financial Year (DD/MM/YY) (b) * Date of Board of Directors meeting in which (DD/MM/YY) Annexure to the cost audit report was approved 4 (a) *State number of good/s or service/s for which the Cost Audit Report is being submitted (b) *Details of such good/s or service/s of the company (Number of rows depending on 4(a) above) Goods(s)/ Service(s) Covered Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 66/68 5 (a) *State number of goods(s)/ service(s) not covered in the Cost Audit Report (b) *Details of such good/s or service/s of the company (Number of rows depending on 5(a) above) Goods(s)/ Service(s) 6. Details of the Cost Auditor (a) * Category of the Cost Auditor Individual Cost Accountant‟s firm LLP (b) *Name of the Cost Auditor or the Cost Auditor‟s firm appointed as cost auditor of the company (c) *Membership number of cost auditor or cost auditor‟s firm‟s registration number (d) Address of the cost auditor or cost auditor‟s firm (i) Line I Line II (ii) City (iii) State (iv) Country (v ) Pin code (e ) * E -mail ID of the cost auditor or cost Auditor‟s firm 7(a) *Whether the cost auditor‟s report has been qualified Yes No If yes, please state (b) *Whether the cost auditor‟s report has any reservations Yes No If yes, please state (c) * Whether the cost auditor‟s report has any adverse remarks Yes No If yes, please state Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 67/68 8 (a) *Whether the cost auditor‟s contain any observation or suggestions Yes No (b) * If yes, cost auditor‟s observations/ suggestions PART - II Attachments: 1. Cost Audit Report 2. Optional attachment(s) – if any List of attachments Verification: To the best of my knowledge and belief, the information given in this form and its attachments is correct and complete. I have been authorized by the Board of Directors‟ (resolution dated DD/MM/YYYY) number to sign and submit this form. I am authorised to sign and submit this form. To be digitally signed by: Managing Director or Director or Manager or Secretary Digital (in case of an Indian company) Or an authorised representative (in case of a foreign company) Signatures Attach Attach Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 Academics Department, The Institute of Cost Accountants of India(Statutory Body under an Act of Parliament) Page 68/68 *Designation *Director Identification number of the Director or Managing Director; or the manager or of authorized representative; or Membership number, if applicable of the secretary Director of the Company Director identification number of the director Modify Check Form Pre-scrutiny Submit ******************************************************************************************************** Note: SOFT COPY OF FAQ on The Companies (Cost Records & Audit) Rules,2014 will be uploaded on 20th February,2015. FAQs are for students only and to be referred for CMA Examinations. Digital Signatures




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