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CA Final ISCA Amended Notes for Nov. 2016 in Question answer format covering all new concepts and amended topics. #pdf
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Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 1 Hii dear friends. Due to lot of changes in Emerging Technology Chapter. I have prepared a complete set of questions which are covered 100% concepts from Study Material with amended Questions which are applicable from CA Final November 2016 Exam. Since many friends request for CA Final ISCA notes in question answer format So now I am submitted to you. Please give your response if you like these so that I can further move to other chapters. - Thanking YouPardeep Rohilla Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 2 (Emerging Technology) Q.1 What is Cloud Computing ∑Cloud computing simply means the use of computing resources as a service through networks, typically the Internet . ∑Cloud computing is both, a combination of software and hardwarebased computing resources delivered as a networked service. ∑This model of IT enabled services enables anytime accessto a shared pool of applications and resources. ∑With cloud computing, companies can scale up to massive capacities in an instant without having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel or license new software . ∑Cloud computing is of particular benefital to small and medium-sized business systems, who wish to completely outsource their data-center infrastructure; or large companies, who wish to get peak load capacity without incurring the higher cost of building larger data centers internally. ∑End users are not need to care about “ How servers and networks are maintained in the cloud.” ∑In both the instances, service consumers use ‘what they need on the Internet’ and pay only for ‘what they use’. E.g : Google apps where any application can be accessed using browser & can be deployed (install)on thousand of computers using internet. Q.2 What is Pertinent issues. M.T : For know about issue of cloud - U S E T H I S ∑Unexpected Behaviors : Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 3 ∑Security issue : ∑Environment friendly cloud computing : ∑Threshold Policy : ∑Hidden Cost : ∑Interoperability : ∑Software development in cloud : Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 4 Q. 3 Objective/ Goal of Cloud computing ? M.T : ?माराCONSOLIDATED?ै?ड?ु प, ANY WHERE & ANY TIME जबभीNEEDहो AVAILABLEहो जाते है, वो भी िबनाCOSTकी परवाह िकए! ?योकी हमार# दो?त"ECO- FRIENDLY है& ?मेशा?यान दे ती हैSCALE?ै?ड?ु पपर! ∑To consolidateIT infrastructure into a more integrated and manageable environment; ∑To access services and data from anywhereat any time; ∑To enable or improve “Anywhere Access (AA)”for ever increasing users; and ∑To Availability& provision of resources as needed. ∑To scalethe IT ecosystem quickly, easily and cost-effectively based on the evolving business needs; ∑To create a highly efficient IT ecosystem, where resources are pooled together and costs are aligned with what resources are actually used; ∑To reduce costsrelated to IT energy/power consumption; Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 5 Q.4 What is Grid Computing ? Explain its reasons for so popular i.e characteristic. Ans. The computing resources in most of the organizations are underutilized but are necessary for certain operations. The idea of Grid computing is to make use of such non- utilized computing power by the needy organizations, and thereby the Return On Investment (ROI) on computing investments can be increased. Thus, Grid computing is a network of computing or processor machines managed with a kind of software such as middleware, in order to access and use the resources remotely. The managing activity of grid resources through the middleware is called Grid Services. Grid Services provide access control, security, access to data including digital libraries and databases, and access to large-scale interactive and long-term storage facilities. Grid Computing is more popular due to the following reasons: ∑It has the ability to make use of unused computing power, and thus, it is a cost effective solution (reducing investments, only recurring costs). ∑This enables different resources of computers to work cooperativelyand collaboratively to solve a scientific problem. Q. 5 Cloud vs Grid Computing. Explain Some Pertinent similarities & differences? Ans : Cloud computing evolved (i.e developed) from Grid computing and provides on demand resource provisioning. Grid computing requires use of software that can divide and carve out pieces of program as one large system. If one piece of software on a node fails, then other pieces of software of software on other node also fail. Some pertinent similarities and differences between cloud and grid computing are highlighted as follows: A) Similarities : ∑Cloud computing and grid computing both are scalable: ∑Scalability is accomplished through load balancing of application instances running separately on a variety of operating systems and connected through Web services. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 6 ∑CPU and network bandwidth is allocated and de-allocated on demand. ∑The system's storage capacity goes up and down depending on the number of users, instances, and the amount of data transferred at a given time. ÿBoth computing types involve multi-tenancy and multitasking: ∑its mean that many customers can perform different tasks, accessing a single or multiple application instances. ∑Sharing resources among a large pool of users assists in reducing infrastructure costs and peak load capacity. ∑Cloud and grid computing provide Service- Level Agreements (SLAs) for guaranteed uptime availability of, say, 99 percent. If the service slides below the level of the guaranteed uptime service, the consumer will get service credit for not receiving data within stipulated time. B) Differences : ÿWhile the storage computing in the grid is well suited for large data storage, it is not economically suited for storing objects as small as 1 byte. ÿIn a data grid, the amounts of distributed data must be large for maximum benefit. While in cloud computing, we can store an object as low as 1 byte and as large as 5 GB or even several terabytes. ÿA computational grid focuses on computationally intensive operations, while cloud computingoffers two types of instances: standard and high-CPU. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 7 Q. 6 What is Cloud computing ARCHITECTURE ? Ans. Front EndBack EndMiddle ware (back end) It is device of clientIn cloud computing , Cloud itself is back end. ÿIt will contains protocols. ÿIt allows computers to connect each other . It needs some application to back end or say cloud computing system. ÿLotof redundant backup so. ÿIt includes 100s of storage devices, servers and various computing machines. ÿIt monitors clients demand. The Cloud Computing Architecture (CCA)of a cloud solution is the structure of the system, which comprises of on-premise and cloud resources, services, middleware, and software components, and the relationships between them. A cloud computing architecture consists of a Front End and a Back End. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side, the computer user sees and interacts through , andthe back end is the “cloud” section of the system, truly facilitating the services. The details are given as follow: Front End Architecture : The front end of the cloud computing system comprises of the client’s devices (or computer network) and some applications needed for accessing the cloud computing system. All the cloud computing systems do not give the same inter face to users. But havee some unique applications which provide network access to its clients. Web services like electronic mail programs use some existing web browsers such as Firefox, internet explorer or Google chrome. Back End Architecture: Back end refers to some service facilitating peripherals. In cloud computing, the back end is cloud itself, which may encompass various computer machines, data storage systems and servers. Groups of these clouds make up a whole cloud computing system. Theoretically, a cloud computing system can include any type of web application program such as video games to applications for data processing, software development Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 8 and entertainment. Usually, every application would have its individual dedicated server for services. There are some set of rules, technically referred as protocols, are followed by this server and it uses a special type of software known as middleware. Middleware allows computers that are connected on networks to communicate with each other. If any cloud computing service provider has many customers, then there’s likely to be very high demand for huge storage space. Many companies that are service providers need hundreds of storage devices. The cloud computing system must have a redundant back-up copy of all the data of its client’s. Q.7 What is Cloud computing TYPES or Cloud computing Environment ? Private PublicCommunity Hybrid Developed by IT Dept. within Enterprise. It is more scalable. Having affordable cost. A private cloud is shared between several organization. It is combo of Private & Public. Use exclusive for benefit of org. Admin by third party & used by general public(user) It is provision for exclusive use by specific community from shared org. When Pvt. cloud are forms Partner ship with Public cloud. It also called internal cloud.It also called Provider cloud.Suitable for those org. that can not afford Private cloud and not rely upon Public cloud. When Public cloud are forms Partner ship with Private cloud. E.g : Server of Facebook. E.g : Server of Amazon. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 9 Q.8 What is Private cloud? Also explain its major advantages and limitations in brief. ÿThis cloud computing environment resides within the boundaries of an organization and ÿis used exclusively for the organization’s benefits. These are also called internal clouds. ÿThey are built primarily by IT departments within enterprises, who seek to optimize utilization of infrastructure resources within the enterprise by provisioning the infrastructure with applications using the concepts of grid and virtualization. Advantages of Private Cloud : ÿThey improve average server utilization; allow usage of low-cost servers and hardware while providing higher efficiencies; thus reducing the costs that a greater number of servers would otherwise entail. ÿIt provides a high level of security and privacy to the user. ÿIt is small in size and controlled and maintained by the organization. Limitation of Private Cloud : ÿMoreover, one major limitation is that IT teams in the organization may have to invest in buying, building and managing the clouds independently. Budget is a constraint in private clouds and they also have loose SLAs. Also other major limitation is that IT teams in the organization may have to invest in buying, building and managing the clouds independently. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 10 Q.9 What is the characterstic of Private Cloud ? MT : Privateबात?ताउ तो: C S कौस?Weak Service level Agreementहै Certain characteristics of Private Cloud are as follows: 1.Secure: The private cloud is secure as it is deployed and managed by the organization itself, and hence there is least chance of data being leaked out of the cloud. 2. Central Control :As usual, the private cloud is managed by the organization itself, there is no need for the organization to rely on anybody and its controlled by the organization itself. 3. Weak Service Level Agreements (SLAs): SLAs play a very important role in any cloud service deployment model as they are defined as agreements between the user and the service provider in private cloud. In private cloud, either Formal SLAs do not exist or are weak as it is between the organization and user of the same organization. Thus, high availability and good service may or may not be available. Q.10 What is diffrence between On –Premise & Outsourced Private Cloud ? On Premise Private Cloud On Outsourced Private Cloud Management Managed by the organization itself.Managed by the third party. Everything is same as usual private cloud except that herethe cloud is outsourced. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) SLAs are defined between the organization and its users. Users have broader access rights than general public cloud users and service providers are able to efficiently provide the service because of small user base and mostly efficient network. These are usually followed strictly as it is a third party organization. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 11 Network Network management and network issue resolving are easier. The networks usually have high bandwidth and low latency The cloud is fully deployed at the third party site and organizations connect to the third party by means of either a dedicated connection or through Internet. Security and Data Privacy Comparatively, it is more resistant to attacks than any other cloud and the security attacks are possible from an internal user only. Cloud is relatively less secure and the security threat is from the third party and the internal employee. Location ÿThe data is usually stored in the same geographical location where the cloud users are present. ÿIn case of several physical locations, the cloud is distributed over several places and is accessed using the Internet. ÿThe cloud is located off site and ÿwhen there is a change of location the data need to be transmitted through long distances. Performance The performance depends on the network and resources and can be controlled by the network management team. The performance of the cloud depends on the third party that is outsourcing the cloud. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 12 Q.11 What is Public cloud? What is the characteristics of Public cloud ? Also explain its major advantages and limitations in brief. Public Clouds: ∑This environment can be used by the general public. This includes individuals, corporations and other types of organizations. ∑Typically, public clouds are administrated by third parties or vendors over the Internet, and the services are offered on pay -per-use basis. ∑These are also called provider clouds. Business models like SaaS (Software-as-a- Service) and public clouds complement each other and enable companies to leverage shared IT resources and services. The Advantages & disadvantage of public cloud include the following: ∑It is widely used in the development, deployment and management of enterprise applications, at affordable costs. ∑It allows the organizations to deliver highly scalable and reliable applications rapidly and at more affordable costs. ∑There is no need for establishing infrastructure for setting up and maintaining the cloud. ∑Strict SLAs are followed. ∑There is no limit for the number of users. ÿMoreover, one of the limitationsis security assurance and thereby building trust among the clients is far from desired but slowly liable to happen. Further, privacy and organizational autonomy are not possible. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 13 Q.12 Characteristics of Public Cloud are as follows: भारत मेPublic कीcharacteristic ये है?क: ?यादातर गरीब"ScaleमेHighly Availableहै, इ?स?लएLess Secureहोने कीवजहसे सरकार ने स?तStringent SLA के ज?रयेaffordableघर ?दए है! ÿHighly Scalable: The resources in the public cloud are large in number and the service providers make sure that all requests are granted. Hence public clouds are considered to be scalable. ÿHighly Available: It is highly available because anybody from any part of the world can access the public cloud with proper permission, and this is not possible in other models as geographical or other access restrictions might be there. ÿLess Secure: Since it is offered by a third party and they have full control over the cloud, the public cloud is less secure out of all the other deployment models. ÿAffordable: The cloud is offered to the public on a pay-as-you-go basis; hence the user has to pay only for what he or she is using (using on a per- hour basis). And this does not involve any cost related to the deployment. ÿStringent(स?त) SLAs :As the service provider’s business reputation and customer strength are totally dependent on the cloud services, they follow the SLAs strictly and violations are avoided. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 14 Q.13 What is Hybrid cloud? What is the characteristics of Public cloud ? Also explain its major advantages and limitations in brief. ∑This is a combination of both at least one private (internal) and at least one public (external) cloud computing environments - usually, consisting of infrastructure, platforms and applications. ∑The usual method of using the hybrid cloud is to have a private cloud initially, and then for additional resources, the public cloud is used. ∑The hybrid cloud can be regarded as a private cloud extended to the public cloud and aims at utilizing the power of the public cloud by retaining the properties of the private cloud . ∑It is typically offered in either of two ways. ÿA vendor has a private cloud and forms a partnership with a public cloud provider or ÿA public cloud provider forms a partnership/franchise with a vendor that provides private cloud platforms Characteristics of Hybrid Cloud are as follows: ÿScalable: The hybrid cloud has the property of public cloud with a private cloud environment and as the public cloud is scalable; the hybrid cloud with the help of its public counterpart is also scalable. ÿPartially Secure: The private cloud is considered as secured and public cloud has high risk of security breach. The hybrid cloud thus cannot be fully termed as secure but as partially secure. ÿStringent SLAs: Overall the SLAs are more stringent than the private cloud and might be as per the public cloud service providers. ÿComplex Cloud Management: Cloud management is complex as it involves more than one type of deployment models and also the number of users is high. The Advantages of Hybrid Cloud include the following: ∑It is highly scalable and gives the power of both private and public clouds. ∑It provides better security than the public cloud. ∑ The limitation of Hybrid Cloud is that the security features are not as good as the public cloud and complex to manage. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 15 Q.14 What is Community cloud? What is the characteristics of Community cloud ? Also explain its major advantages and limitations in brief. ÿThe community cloud is the cloud infrastructure that is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers. ÿFrom organizations that have shared concerns (eg. mission security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). ÿIt may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party or some combination of them, ÿand it may exist on or off premises. ÿIn this, a private cloud is shared between several organizations. ÿThis model is suitable for organizations that cannot afford a private cloud and cannot rely on the public cloud either. Characteristics of Community Clouds are as follows: ßCollaborative and Distributive Maintenance: In this, no single company has full control over the whole cloud. This is usually distributive and hence better cooperation provides better results. ßPartially Secure: This refers to the property of the community cloud where few organizations share the cloud, so there is a possibility that the data can be leaked from one organization to another, though it is safe from the external world. ßCost Effective: As the complete cloud is being shared by several organizations or community, not only the responsibility gets shared; the community cloud becomes cost effective too. Advantages of Community Clouds are as follows: ÿIt allows establishing a low-cost private cloud. ÿIt allows collaborative work on the cloud. ÿIt allows sharing of responsibilities among the organizations. ÿIt has better security than the public cloud. The limitation of the community cloudis that the autonomy of the organization is lost and some of the security features are not as good as the private cloud. It is not suitable in the cases where there is no collaboration. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 16 Q.15 Explain, in brief, the characteristics of Cloud Computing. MT : आशारामi.e Very Popular (A S M)² Major characteristics of cloud computing are given as follows: Virtualization: This technology allows servers and storage devices to increasingly share and utilize applications, by easy migration from one physical server to another. Performance: It is monitored and consistent and its loosely coupled architecture constructed using web services as the system interface enables high level of performance. Agility: The cloud works in the ‘distributed mode’ environment. It shares resources among users and tasks, while improving efficiency and agility (responsiveness). High Availability and Reliability: Availability of servers is supposed to be high and more reliable as the chances of infrastructure failure are minimal. High Scalability: Cloud environments enable servicing of business requirements for larger audiences, through high scalability. Services in Pay-Per-Use Mode: SLAs between the provider and the user must be defined when offering services in pay per use mode. This may be based on the complexity of services offered. Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) may be offered to the users so they can access services on the cloud by using these APIs. Maintenance: The cloud computing applications are easier, because they are not to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places. Multi-sharing: With the cloud working in a distributed and shared mode, multiple users and applications can work more efficiently with cost reductions by sharing common infrastructure. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 17 Q.16 Briefly discuss the advantages of Cloud Computing. MT : AB QU CA बेटा आशारान मे कोइbenefit नही है बि?कCA मे है Major advantages of Cloud Computing are given as follows: Automatic Software Integration: ÿIn the cloud, software integration is usually something that occurs automatically. ÿThis means that we do not need to take additional efforts to customize and integrate the applications as per our preferences. ÿThis aspect usually takes care of itself. Not only that, cloud computing allows us to customize the options with great ease. Backup and Recovery: ÿSince all the data is stored in the cloud, backing it up and restoring the same is relatively much easier than storing the same on a physical device. ÿFurthermore, most cloud service providers are usually competent enough to handle recovery of information. ÿHence, this makes the entire process of backup and recovery much simpler than other traditional methods of data storage. Quick Deployment: ÿIt gives us the advantage of quick deployment. ÿOnce we opt for this method of functioning, the entire system can be fully functional in a matter of a few minutes. ÿOf course, the amount of time taken here will depend on the exact kind of technology that we need for our business. Unlimited Storage: ÿStoring information in the cloud gives us almost unlimited storage capacity. ÿHence, one no more need to worry about running out of storage space or increasing the current storage space availability. Cost Efficiency: ÿIt is most cost efficient method to use, maintain and upgrade. ÿTraditional desktop software costs companies a lot in terms of finance. Adding up the licensing fees for multiple users can prove to be very expensive for the establishment concerned. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 18 ÿBut The cloud, on the other hand, is available at much cheaper rates and hence, can significantly lower the company’s IT expenses. ÿBesides, there are many one-time-payments, pay-as-you-go and other scalable options available, which make it very reasonable for the company. Access to Information easy: Once registered in the cloud, one can access the information from anywhere, where there is an Internet connection. This convenient feature lets one move beyond time zone and geographic location issues. Q.17 Discuss challengesto Cloud computing in brief. OR Discuss the Security and Implementation issues in using Cloud Computing technology for running the new web application. MT: G I T A L A D C I कीIdentification करनेपरS A P A हो जाता है जी! Governance: vDue to the lack of control over the employees and services, it creates problems relating to design, implementation, testing and deployment. vSo, there is need of governance model, which controls the standards, procedures and policies of the organization. vAuditing and risk management programs are some way to verify the policy, which can shift the risk landscape. Integrity: vIntegrity refers to the prevention of unauthorized modification of data and vit ensures that data is of high quality, correct, consistent and accessible. vAfter moving the data to the cloud, owner hopes that their data and applications are secure. vIt is important to verify if one’s data has been tampered with or deleted. vMethods like digital signature, Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) strategies etc. are some ways to preserve integrity in vCloud computing. The most direct way to enforce the integrity control is to employ cryptographic hash function. Trust: vOrg. has direct control over security aspects as well as the federal agencies even have responsibility to protect the information system from the risk. vTrust is an important issue in Cloud. Various clients’ oriented studies reveal that Cloud has still failed to build trust between the client and service provider. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 19 vTrust ensures that service arrangements have sufficient means to allow visibility into the security and privacy controls and processes employed by the Cloud provider, and their performance over time. Availability: ÿAvailability refers to the prevention of unauthorized withholding of data and it ensures the data backup through BCP and DRP. ÿIn addition, Availability also ensures that they meet the organization’s continuity and contingency planning requirements. ÿAvailability can be affected temporarily or permanently, and a loss can be partial or complete. Temporary breakdowns, sustained and Permanent Outages, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, equipment failure, and natural calamities are all threats to availability. Legal Issues and Compliance: ÿThere are various requirements relating to legal, privacy and data security laws that need to be studied in Cloud system. ÿOne of the major troubles with laws is that they vary from place to place, and users have no assurance of where the data is located physically. ÿThere is a need to understand various types of laws and regulations that impose security and privacy duties on the organization and potentially impact Cloud computing initiatives such as demanding privacy, data location and security controls, records management. Audit: ÿAuditing is type of checking that ‘what is happening in the Cloud environment’. ÿIt is an additional layer before the virtualized application environment, which is being hosted on the virtual machine to watch ‘what is happening in the system’. ÿit consumes more time, insistent across customers, pricy and motivational debilitate for everyone. Data Stealing : ÿSome of the Cloud providers do not use their own server, instead. They use server/s from other service providers. ÿIn that case, there is a probability that the data is less secure and is more prone to the loss from external server. ÿIf the external server is shut down due to any legal problem, financial crisis, natural disaster, and fire creates loss for the user. ÿIn that case, data protection is an important mechanism to secure the data. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 20 Confidentiality: ÿPrevention of unauthorized disclosure of data is referred to as confidentiality. ÿNormally, Cloud works on public networks; therefore, there is a requirement to keep the data confidential the unauthorized entities. With the use of encryption and physical isolation, data can be kept secret. ÿThe basic approaches to attain confidentiality are the encrypting the data before placing it in a Cloud with the use of TC3 (Total Claim Capture & Control). Incident Response: ÿIt ensures to meet the requirements of the organization during an incident. ÿIt ensures that the Cloud provider has a transparent response process in place and sufficient mechanisms to share information during and after an incident. Identity Management and Access control: The key critical success factor for Cloud providers is to have a robust federated identity management architecture and strategy internal in the organization. Software isolation: It is to understand virtualization and other logical isolation techniques that the Cloud provider employs in its multi-tenant software architecture, and evaluate the risks required for the organization. Application Security: ÿSecurity issues relating to application security still apply when applications move to a cloud platform. ÿTo prevent Cloud computing; service provider should have the complete access to the server with all rights for the purpose of monitoring and maintenance of server. ÿInfected applications need to be monitored an recovered by the Cloud security drivers. Privacy: ÿPrivacy is also considered as one of the important issues in Cloud. ÿThe privacy issues are embedded in each phase of the Cloud design. ÿIt should include both the legal compliance and trusting maturity. ÿThe Cloud should be designed in such a way that it decreases the privacy risk. Architecture:In the architecture of Cloud computing models, there should be a control over the security and privacy of the system. The architecture of the Cloud is based on a specific service model. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 21 Q.18 What is Mobile Computing. How Mobile Computing Works? ÿMobile Computing refers to the technology that allows transmission of data via a computer without having to be connected to a fixed physical link. ÿMobile voice communication is widely established throughout the world and has had a very rapid increase in the number of subscribers to the various cellular networks over the last few years. ÿAn extension of this technology is the ability to send and receive data across these cellular networks. This is the fundamental principle of mobile computing. ÿMobile data communication has become a very important and rapidly evolving technology as it allows users to transmit data from remote locations to other remote or fixed locations. ÿThis proves to be the solution of the biggest problem of business people on the move. Here is how Mobile Computing works: ∑The user enters or access data using the application on handheld computing device. ∑Using one of several connecting technologies, the new data are transmitted from handheld to site’s information system where files are updated and the new data are accessible to other system user. ∑Now both systems (handheld and site’s computer) have the same information and are in sync. ∑The process work the same way starting from the other direction. The process is similar to the way a worker’s desktop PC access the organization’s applications, except that user’s device is not physically connected to the organization’s system. The communication between the user device and site’s information systems uses different methods for transferring and synchronizing data, some involving the use of Radio Frequency (RF) technology. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 22 Q19. Discuss the components of Mobile Computing. The key components of Mobile Computing are as follows: 1.Mobile Communication: ÿThis refers to the infrastructure put in place to ensure that seamless and reliable communication goes on. ÿThis would include communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies. 2. Mobile Hardware: ÿThis includes mobile devices or device components that receive or access the service of mobility. ÿThey would range from Portable laptops, Smart Phones, Tablet PCs, and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) that use an existing and established network to operate on. ÿAt the back end, there are various servers like Application Servers, Database Servers and Servers with wireless support, WAP gateway, a Communications Server and/or MCSS (Mobile Communications Server Switch) or a wireless gateway embedded in wireless carrier’s network (this server provide communications functionality to allow the handheld device to communicate with the internet or Intranet Infrastructure). ÿThe characteristics of mobile computing hardware are defined by the size and form factor, weight, microprocessor, primary storage, secondary storage, screen size and type, means of input, means of output, battery life, communications capabilities, expandability and durability of the device. 3. Mobile Software: ÿMobile Software is the actual programme that runs on the mobile hardware and deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. ÿIt is the operating system of that appliance and is the essential component that makes the mobile device operates. ÿMobile applications popularly called Apps are being developed by organizations for use by customers but these apps could represent risks, in terms of flow of data as well as personal identification risks, introduction of malware and access to personal information of mobile owner. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 23 Q20 Benefits of Mobile Computing MT : if MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESSis good, WORK ORDERcan beACCESS& UPDATEDfromANY JOB LOCATIONat ANYWHERE, ANYTIME. In general, Mobile Computing is a versatile and strategic technology that increases information quality and accessibility, enhances operational efficiency, and improves management effectiveness. But, more specifically, it leads to a range of tangible benefits, including the following: 1. It provides mobile workforce with remote access to work order details, such as work order location, contact information, required completion date, asset history relevant warranties/service contracts. 2. It enables mobile sales personnel to update work order status in real-time, facilitating excellent communication. 3. It facilitates access to corporate services and information at any time, from anywhere. 4. It provides remote access to the corporate Knowledgebase at the job location.5 5. It enables to improve management effectiveness by enhancing information quality, information flow, and ability to control a mobile workforce. Q.21 Limitations of Mobile Computing Insufficient Bandwidth: ÿMobile Internet access is generally slower than direct cable connections using technologies such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) ÿAnd Enhanced Data for GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) Evolution (EDGE), and more recently 3G networks. ÿThese networks are usually available within range of commercial cell phone towers. Higher speed wireless LANs are inexpensive but have very limited range. Security Standards: ÿWhen working mobile, one is dependent on public networks, requiring careful use of Virtual Private Network (VPN). ÿSecurity is a major concern while concerning the mobile computing standards. ÿOne can easily attack the VPN through a huge number of networks interconnected through the line. Power consumption: Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 24 ÿWhen a power outlet or portable generator is not available, mobile computers must rely entirely on battery power. ÿCombined with the compact size of many mobile devices, this often means unusually expensive batteries must be used to obtain the necessary battery life. Mobile computing should also look into Greener IT in such a way that it saves the power or increases the battery life. Transmission interferences: ÿWeather, terrain, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with signal reception. ÿReception in tunnels, some buildings, and rural areas is often poor. Potential health hazards: ÿPeople who use mobile devices while driving are often distracted from driving are thus assumed to be more likely involved in traffic accidents. ÿCell phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices. ÿThere are allegations that cell phone signals may cause health problems. Human interface with device: ÿScreens and keyboards tend to be small, which may make them hard to use. ÿAlternate input methods such as speech or handwriting recognition require training. Q.22 Discuss securityissues of Mobile Computing. Answer Security Issues : Wireless networks have relatively more security requirements than wired network. A number of approaches have been suggested and also the use of encryption is has been proposed . 1. Confidentiality: Preventing unauthorized users from gaining access to critical information of any particular user. 2. Integrity: Ensures unauthorized modification, destruction or creation of information cannot take place. 3. Availability: Ensuring authorized users getting the access they require. 4. Legitimate: Ensuring that only authorized users have access to services. 5. Accountability: Ensuring that the users are held responsible for their security related activities by arranging the user and his/her activities are linked if and when necessary. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 25 Q. 23 Discuss (technical & business) issues of Mobile Computing i.e “ other than security.” Answer : Bandwidth: ÿBandwidth utilization can be improved by logging (bulk operations against short requests) and compression of data before transmission. ÿThe technique of caching frequently accessed data items can play an important role in reducing contention in narrow bandwidth wireless networks. ÿThe cached data can help improve query response time. Since mobile clients often disconnect to conserve battery power the cached data can support disconnected operations. Location Intelligence: ÿAs the mobile computers move, they encounter networks with different features. A mobile computer must be able to switch from infrared mode to radio mode as it moves from indoors to outdoors. ÿAdditionally it should be capable of switching from cellular mode of operation to satellite mode as the computer moves from urban and rural areas. ÿIn mobile computing; as computers are working in cells and are being serviced by different network providers, the physical distance may not reflect the true network distance. ÿA small movement may result in a much longer path if cell or network boundaries are crossed. ÿIt will also lead to updating of the location dependent information as described above. ÿThis can increase the network latency as well as risk of disconnection. Service connections must be dynamically transferred to the nearest server. However, when load balancing is a priority this may not be possible. Power Consumption: ÿMobile Computers will rely on their batteries as the primary power source. ÿBatteries should be ideally as light as possible but at the same time they should be capable of longer operation times. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 26 ÿPower consumption should be minimized to increase battery life. Chips can be redesigned to operate at lower voltages. ÿPower management can also help. Individual Components, be powered down when they are idle. Revising the technical architecture: ÿMobile users are demanding and are important to the business world. ÿTo provide complete connectivity among users; the current communication technology must be revised to incorporate mobile connectivity. ÿAdditionally, application and data architectures must also be revised to support the demands put upon them by the mobile connectivity. Reliability, coverage, capacity, and cost: ÿAt present; wireless network is less reliable, have less geographic coverage and reduced bandwidth, are slower, and cost more than the wired-line network services. ÿIt is important to find ways to use this new resource more efficiently by designing innovative applications. Integration with legacy mainframe and emerging client/server applications: ÿApplication development paradigms are changing. ÿAs a result of the IT industry's original focus on mainframes, a huge inventory of applications using communications interfaces that are basically incompatible with mobile connectivity have been accumulated. ÿStill the application development trend is geared towards wired network. End-to-end design and performance: Since mobile computing involves multiple networks (including wired) and multiple application server platforms; end-to-end technical compatibility, server capacity design, and network response time estimates are difficult to achieve. Business challenges: ÿIn addition to these technical challenges, mobile computing also faces business challenges. ÿThis is due to the lack of trained professionals to bring the mobile technology to the general people and development of pilot projects for testing its capabilities. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 27 Cloud computing basic Service MODEL Q.24 Cloud Computing Service Models Answer : ∑Cloud computing is a model that enables the end users to access the shared pool of resources such as compute, network, storage, database and application as an on demand service without the need to buy or own it. ∑The services are provided and managed by the service provider, reducing the management effort from the end user side. ∑The essential characteristics of the cloud include on-demand, self service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines three basic service models – 1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), 2. Platform as a Service (PaaS), and 3. Software as a Service (SaaS). Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 28 Q.25 Explain the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). What type of services provided by Iaas ? Answer : ÿIaaS, a hardware-level service, provides computing resources such as processing power, memory, storage, and networks for cloud users to run their application on-demand. ÿThis allows users to maximize the utilization of computing capacities without having to own and manage their own resources. ÿIaaS changes the computing from a physical infrastructure to a virtual infrastructure through virtual computing; storage; and network resources by abstracting the physical resources . The end-users or IT architects will use the infrastructure resources in the form of Virtual machines (VMs) and design virtual infrastructure, network load balancers etc., based on their needs. The IT architects need not maintain the physical servers as it is maintained by the service providers. Examples of IaaS providers include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Compute Engine. A typical IaaS provider may provide the following services as shown below : (a) Compute:Computing as a Service includes virtual Central Processing Inputs (CPUs) and virtual main memory for the Virtual Machines (VMs) that are provisioned to the end users. (b) Storage:STaaS provides back-end storage for the VM images. Some of the IaaS providers also provide the back end for storing files. (c) Network: Network as a Service (NaaS) provides virtual networking components such as virtual router, switch, and bridge for the VMs. (d) Load Balancers:Load balancing as a Service may provide load balancing capability at the infrastructure layer. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 29 Q.26 What is the Characteristics of IaaS ? Characteristics of IaaS are as follows: Web access to the resources: ÿThe IaaS model enables the IT users to access infrastructure resources over the Internet. ÿWhen accessing a huge computing power, the IT user need not get physical access to the servers. Centralized management: The resources distributed across different parts are controlled from any management console that ensures effective resource management and effective resource utilization. Elasticity and Dynamic Scaling: Depending on the load, IaaS services can provide the resources and elastic services where the usage of resources can be increased or decreased according to the requirements. Shared infrastructure: IaaS follows a one-to-many delivery model and allows multiple IT users to share the same physical infrastructure and thus ensure high resource utilization. Metered Services: IaaS allows the IT users to rent the computing resources instead of buying it. The services consumed by the IT user will be measured, and the users will be charged by the IaaS providers based on the amount of usage. Q.27 What is the different Instances of IaaS ? A.Network as a Service (NaaS): ÿNaaS, an instance of IaaS, provides users with needed data communication capacity to accommodate bursts in data traffic during data-intensive activities such as video conferencing or large file downloads. ÿIt is an ability given to the end-users to access virtual network services that are provided by the service provider over the Internet on pay-per-use basis. ÿIt further allows the network architect to deploy custom routing protocols and enables the design of efficient in-network services. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 30 NaaS providers operate using three common service models: 1. Virtual Private Network (VPN) 2. Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) and 3. Mobile Virtual Network (MVN). B. Storage as a Service (STaaS): ÿSTaaS, an instance of IaaS, provides storage infrastructure on a subscription basis to users who want a low-cost and convenient way to store data, manage off-site backups, mitigate risks of disaster recovery, and preserve records for the long-term. ÿSTaaS allows the end users to access the files at any time from any place. STaaS provider provides the virtual storage that is abstracted from the physical storage of any cloud data center C. Database as a Service (DBaaS): ÿThis is also related to IaaS and provides users with seamless mechanisms to create, store, and access databases at a host site on demand. ÿIt is an ability given to the end users to access the database service without the need to install and maintain it on the pay-per-use basis. D. Backend as a Service (BaaS): It is a type of IaaS, that provides web and mobile app developers a way to connect their applications to backend cloud storage with added services such as user management, push notifications, social network services integration using custom software development kits and application programming interfaces. E. Desktop as a Service (DTaaS): ÿIt is an instance of IaaS that provides ability to the end users to use desktop virtualization without buying and managing their own infrastructure. ÿDTaaS is a pay-per-use cloud service delivery model in which the service provider manages the back-end responsibilities of data storage, backup, security and upgrades. ÿThe end-users are responsible for securing and managing their own desktop images, applications, and security. These services are simple to deploy, are highly secure, and produce better experience on almost all devices Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 31 Q.27 What about PaaS ? What type of service may be provided by PaaS. Also explain the characteristic of PaaS ? ÿPaaS provides the users the ability to develop and deploy an application on the development platform provided by the service provider. ÿIn traditional application development, the application will be developed locally and will be hosted in the central location. In stand-alone application development, the application will be developed by traditional development platforms result in licensing - based software, ÿwhereas PaaS changes the application development from local machine to online. ÿFor example- Google App Engine, Windows Azure Compute etc. Typical PaaS providers may provide : 1.Programming Languages: PaaS providers provide a wide variety of programming languages like Java, PHP, Python, Ruby etc. for the developers to develop applications. 2. Application Frameworks: PaaS vendors provide application development framework like Joomla, WordPress, Sinatra etc. for application development . 3.Database: Along with PaaS platforms, PaaS providers provide some of the popular databases like ClearDB, Cloudant, Redis etc. so that application can communicate with the databases. 4. -Other Tools: PaaS providers provide all the tools that are required to develop,test, and deploy an application. Characteristics of PaaS are as follows: ÿAll in One:Most of the PaaS providers offer services like programming languages to develop, test, deploy, host and maintain applications in the same Integrated Development Environment (IDE). ÿWeb access to the development platform:PaaS provides web access to the development platform that helps the developers to create, modify, test, and deploy different applications on the same platform. ÿOffline Access:To enable offline development, some of the PaaS providers allow the developer to synchronize their local IDE with the PaaS services. The Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 32 developers can develop an application locally and deploy it online whenever they are connected to the Internet. ÿBuilt-in Scalability: ∑PaaS services provide built-in scalability to an application that is developed using any particular PaaS. ∑This ensures that the application is capable of handling varying loads efficiently. ÿCollaborative Platform:To enable collaboration among developers, most of the PaaS providers provide tools for project planning and communication. ÿDiverse Client Tools: PaaS providers offer a wide variety of client tools like Web User Interface (UI), Application Programming Interface (API) etc. to help the developers to choose the tool of their choice. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 33 Q.28 What about SaaS ? What type of service may be provided by SaaS. Also explain the characteristic of PaaS ? ÿSaaS provides ability to the end users to access an application over the Internet that is hosted and managed by the service provider. ÿThus, the end users are exempted from managing or controlling an application the development platform, and the underlying infrastructure. SaaS changes the way the software is delivered to the customers. ÿIn the traditional software model, the software is delivered as a license-based product that needs to be installed in the end user device. ÿSince SaaS is delivered as an on-demand service over the Internet, there is no need to install the software to the end-user’s devices. ÿSaaS services can be accessed or disconnected at any time based on the end user’s needs. ÿSaaS provides users to access large variety of applications over internets that are hosted on service provider’s infrastructure. ÿFor example, one can make his/her own word document in Google docs online, s/he can edit a photo online on so s/he need not install the photo editing software on his/her system- thus Google is provisioning software as a service. Services offered by SaaS providers : (a) Business Services : SaaS providers provide a variety of business services to startup companies that include ERP, CRM, billing, sales, and human resources. (b) Social Networks: Since the number of users of the social networking sites is increasing exponentially, loud computing is the perfect match for handling the variable load. (c) Document Management: Most of the SaaS providers provide services to create, manage, and track electronic documents as most of the enterprises extensively use electronic documents. (d) Mail Services: To handle the unpredictable number of users and the load on email services, most of the email providers offer their services as SaaS services. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 34 Characteristics of SaaS are as follows: 1.One to Many: SaaS services are delivered as one-to-many models where a single instance of the application can be shared by multiple customers. 2. Web Access: SaaS services allow the end users to access the application from any location of the device is connected to the Internet. 3. Centralized Management: Since SaaS services are hosted and managed from the central location, the SaaS providers perform the automatic updates to ensure that each customer is accessing the most recent version of the application. 4. Multi-device Support: SaaS services can be accessed from any end user devices such as desktops, laptops, tablets, smart phones, and thin clients. 5. Better Scalability: Most of the SaaS services leverage PaaS and IaaS for its development and deployment and ensure a better scalability than traditional software. 6. High Availability: SaaS services ensure 99.99% availability of user data as proper backup and recovery mechanisms are implemented . 7.API Integration: SaaS services have the capability of integrating with other software or service through standard APIs. Q.29 What are the different instances of SaaS ? ÿTesting as a Service (TaaS): This provides users with software testing capabilities such as generation of test data, generation of test cases, execution of test cases and test result evaluation on a pay-per-use basis. ÿAPI as a Service (APIaaS): This allows users to explore functionality of Web services such as Google Maps, Payroll processing, and credit card processing services etc. ÿEmail as a Service (EaaS): This provides users with an integrated system of emailing, office automation, records management, migration, and integration services with archiving, spam blocking, malware protection. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 35 Q.30 What are the Other Cloud Service Models. Answer : These are followings : a. Communication as a Service (CaaS) b. Data as a Service (DaaS) c. Security as a Service (SECaaS) d. Identity as a Service (IDaaS a. Communication as a Service (CaaS): ÿCaaS has evolved in the same lines as SaaS. ÿCaaS is an outsourced enterprise communication solution that can be leased from a single vender. ÿThe CaaS vendor is responsible for all hardware and software management and offers guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). ÿIt allows businesses to selectively deploy communication devices and modes on a pay-as-you-go, as needed basis. ÿThis approach eliminates the large capital investments. Examples are: Voice over IP (VolP), Instant Messaging (IM), Collaboration and Videoconferencing application using fixed and mobile devices. b. Data as a Service (DaaS): ÿDaaS provides data on demand to different types of users, systems or application. ÿThe data may include text, images, sounds, and videos. ÿData encryption and operating system authentication are commonly provided for security. ÿDaaS users have access to high-quality data in a centralized place and pay by volume or data type, as needed. ÿHowever, as the data is owned by the providers, users can only perform read operations on the data. ÿDaaS is highly used in geography data services and financial data services. c. Security as a Service (SECaaS): ÿIt is an ability given to the end user to access the security serviceprovided by the service provider on a pay-per-use basis. ÿIt is a new approach to security in which cloud security is moved into the cloud itself whereby cloud service users will be protected from within the cloud using a unified approach to threats. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 36 vFour mechanisms of Cloud security that are currently provided are: 1.Email filtering, 2.Web content filtering, 3.Vulnerability management and 4.Identity management. d.Identity as a Service (IDaaS): ÿIt is an ability given to the end users; typically an organization or enterprise; ÿto access the authentication infrastructure that is built, hosted, managed and provided by the third party service provider. ÿGenerally, IDaaS includes directory services, authentication services, risk and event monitoring, single sign-on services, and identity and profile management. Q.31 What is Green IT or Green Compounding ? What are the objective of Green compounding ? ÿIn other words, it is the study and practice of establishing / using computers and IT resources in a more efficient and environmentally friendly and responsible way. ÿComputers consume a lot of natural resources, from the raw materials needed to manufacture them, the power used to run them, and the problems of disposing them at the end of their life cycle. ÿThis can include "designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems - such as monitors, printers, storage devices efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment”. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 37 vThe objective of Green computing are as below: ∑To reduce the use of hazardous materials, ∑Maximize energy efficiency during the product’s lifetime, and ∑Promote the recyclability of defunct products and factory waste. ∑Implementation of energy-efficient CPUs, Servers etc. ∑Reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste). Q.32 ‘The work habits of computer users and businesses can be modified to minimize adverse impact on the global environment’. Discuss some of such steps, which can be followed for Green IT. Or Discuss best practices of Green IT. Some of such steps for Green IT include the following: A. Develop a sustainable Green computing plan ∑Involve stakeholders to include checklists, recycling policies, recommendations for disposal of used equipment, ∑Follow Government guidelines and recommendations for purchasing green computer equipment in organizational policies and plans; ∑Encourage the IT community for using the best practices and encourage them to consider green computing practices and guidelines. ∑On-going communication about and campus commitment to green IT best practices to produce notable results. ∑Include power usage, reduction of paper consumption, as well as recommendations for new equipment and recycling old machines in organizational policies and plans; and ∑Use cloud computing so that multiple organizations share the same computing resources, thus increasing the utilization by making more efficient use of hardware resources. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 38 B. Recycle ∑Dispose e-waste according to central, state and local regulations; ∑Discard used or unwanted electronic equipment in a convenient and environmentally responsible manner. ∑Manufacturers must offer safe end-of-life management and recycling options when products become unusable; and ∑Recycle computers through manufacturer’s recycling services. C. Make environmentally sound purchase decisions ∑Purchase of desktop computers, notebooks and monitors based on environmental attributes; ∑Provide a clear, consistent set of performance criteria for the design of products; ∑Recognize manufacturer efforts to reduce the environmental impact of products by reducing or eliminating environmentally sensitive materials. ∑Use Server and storage virtualization that can help to improve resource utilization, reduce energy costs and simplify maintenance. D. Reduce Paper Consumption ∑Reduce paper consumption by use of e-mail and electronic archiving; ∑Use of “track changes” feature in electronic documents, rather than redline corrections on paper; ∑Use online marketing rather than paper based marketing; ∑Use E-mail marketing solutions that are more affordable, flexible and interactive than traditional marketing because of free and low-cost online invoicing solutions that help cut down on paper waste; ∑Use smaller fonts and margins, and selectively print required pages. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 39 E. Conserve Energy ÿUse Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)monitors rather than Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors; ÿDevelop a thin-client strategy wherein thin clients are smaller, cheaper, simpler for manufacturers to build than traditional PCs or notebooks and most importantly use about half the power of a traditional desktop PC; ÿUse notebook computersrather than desktop computers whenever possible; ÿUse the power-management features to turn off hard drives and displays after several minutes of inactivity; ÿPower-down the CPU and all peripherals during extended periods of inactivity; ÿTry to do computer-related tasks during contiguous, intensive blocks of time, leaving hardware off at other times; ÿPower-up and power-down energy-intensive peripherals such as laser printers according to need; ÿEmploy alternative energy sources for computing workstations, servers, networks and data centers; and ÿAdapt more of Web conferencing offers instead of travelling to meetings in order to go green and save energy. Q. 33 Green IT Security Services and Challenges ? Green IT Security Services: IT solution providers are offering green security services in many ways. MT : S I C S ÿWhat to look in green security products, the challenges in the security services market and how security services fare in a recessionie Security Issue. ÿThe basic aim is to increase the customer's energy savings through green security services and assess that ‘how sustainable computing technology can immediately impact to help the environment’. ÿIf not administered properly with other green computing technologies, green security can be more costly. ÿThere is no standard to knowing ‘how to evaluate a client's infrastructure to accommodate green technology . So it is really a vital issue’. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 40 Q.34 What is BYOD ? Also describe the benefits of BYOD ? BYOD: ÿBYOD stands for (Bring Your Own Device). ÿIt refers to business policy that allows employees to use their preferred computing devices, like smart phones and laptops for business purposes. ÿIt means employees are welcome to use personal devices (laptops, smart phones, tablets etc.) to connect to the corporate network to access information and application. ÿThe BYOD policy has rendered the workspaces flexible, empowering employees to be mobile and giving them the right to work beyond their required hours. ÿTherefore it has led to an increase in employees’ satisfaction. ÿBYOD also reduced IT desktop costs for organizations as employees are willing to buy, maintain and update devices. Advantages of BYOD Happy Employees : Employees love to use their own devices when at work. This also reduces the number of devices an employee has to carry; otherwise he would be carrying his personal as well as organization provided devices. Lower IT budgets: The employees could involve financial savings to the organization since employees would be using the devices they already possess, thus reducing the outlay of the organization in providing devices to them. IT reduces support requirement i.e reduced maintenance cost : IT department does not have to provide end user support and maintenance for all these devices resulting in cost savings. Early adoption of new Technologies: Employees are generally proactive in adoption of new technologies that result in enhanced productivity of employees leading to overall growth of business. Increased employee efficiency: The efficiency of employees is more when the employee works on his/her own device. In an organization provided devices, employees have to learn and there is a learning curve involved in it. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 41 ÿQ.34 What is BYOD Threats ? MT : I N D I A ÿEvery business decision is accompanied with a set of threats and so is BYOD program too; ÿBYOD program that allows access to corporate network, emails, client data etc. is one of the top security concerns for enterprises. So Overall, these risks can be classified into four areas as outlined below: Implementation Risks: ÿIt is normally exemplified and hidden in ‘Weak BYOD Policy’. ÿThe effective implementation of the BYOD program should not only cover the technical issues but alsomandate the development of a robust implementation policy. ÿAbsence of a strong BYOD policy would fail to communicate employee expectations, thereby increasing the chances of device misuse. ÿSo it is very important to develop proper effective policy to stop misuse of data of organization. Network Risks: ÿIt is normally exemplified and hidden in ‘Lack of Device Visibility’. ÿIf company-owned devices are used by all employees within an organization, then it has complete visibility of the devices connected to the network. This helps to analyze traffic and data exchanged over the Internet. ÿBut As BYOD permits employees to carry their own devices (smart phones, laptops for business use), the IT practice team is unaware about the number of devices being connected to the network. ÿAs network visibility is of high importance, this lack of visibility can be hazardous. Device Risks: ÿIt is normally exemplified and hidden in ‘Loss of Devices’. ÿA lost or stolen device can result in an large financial and reputational problem to an organization as the device may hold sensitive corporate information. ÿData lost from stolen or lost ealsy access to company emails, corporate intranet. ÿCompany trade secrets can be easily retrieved from a misplaced device by outsider. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 42 Application Risks: ÿIt is normally exemplified and hidden in ‘Application Viruses and Malware’. ÿA related report revealed that a majority of employees’ phones and smart devices that were connected to the corporate network weren’t protected by security software. concurrently. ÿFurther Organizations are not clear in deciding that ‘who is responsible for device security – the organization or the user’. Q. 35 What is Web 2.0 ? ∑Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web. ∑It is focused onthe ability of people to collaborateand share information online. ∑One of the most significant differences between Web 2.0 and the traditional World Wide Web (referred as Web 1.0) is that Web 2.0 facilitates greater collaboration and information sharing among Internet users, content providers and enterprises. ∑Thus it can be said that the migration is from the “read-only web” to “read- write web” ∑.The power of Web 2.0 is the creation of new relationships between collaborators and information . ∑Blogs, wikis, and Web services are all seen as components of Web 2.0. ∑Web 2.0 tries to tap the power of humans connected electronically through its new ways at looking at social collaboration. ∑The main agenda of Web 2.0 is to connect people in numerous new ways and utilize their collective strengths, in a collaborative manner. ∑In this regard, many new concepts have been created such as Blogging, Social Networking, Communities, Mash-ups, and Tagging. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 43 Q.36 Components of Web 2.0 for Social Networks ? Major components that have been considered in Web 2.0 include the following: RSS-generated Syndication: RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a format for syndicating web content that allows feed the freshly published web content to the users through the RSS reader. Communities:These are an online space formed by a group of individuals to share their thoughts, ideas and have a variety of tools to promote Social Networking. There are a number of tools available online, now-a-days to create communities, which are very cost efficient as well as easy to use. Blogging:A blog is a journal, diary, or a personal website that is maintained on the internet, and it is updated frequently by the user. Blogging allows a user to make a post to a web log or a blog. Blogs give the users of a Social Network the freedom to express their thoughts in a free form basis and help in generation and discussion of topics. Mash-ups:This is the facility, by using which people on the internet can congregate services from multiple vendors to create a completely new service. An example may be combining the location information from a mobile service provider and the map facility of Google maps in order to find the exact information of a cell phone device from the internet, just by entering the cell number. Wiki:A Wiki is a set of co-related pages on a particular subject and allow users to share content. Wikis replace the complex document management systems and are very easy to create and maintain. Folksonomy: This allows the free classification of information available on the web, which helps the users to classify and find information, using approaches such as tagging. Also known as Social Bookmarking, In which tagged pages are stored on the web increasing the accessibility from any computer connected to the Internet. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 44 Usage of Ajax and other new technologies: Ajax is a way of developing web applications that combines XHTML and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) standards based presentation that allows the interaction with the web page and data interchange with XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and XSLT (eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations). File Sharing/Podcasting:This is the facility, which helps users to send their media files and related content online for other people of the network to see and contribute. Q.36 Types and Behavior of Social Networks ? Social Contact Networks: These types of networks are formed to keep contact with friends and family. These have become the most popular sites on the network today. They have all components of Web 2.0 like blogging, tagging, wikis, and forums Examples of these include Orkut, Facebook and Twitter. Study Circles: These are social networks dedicated for students, where they can have areas dedicated to student study topics, placement related queries and advanced research opportunity gathering. These have components like blogging and file sharing. Examples of these include, CA Club, CA knowledge portal etc. Social Networks for Specialist Groups: These types of social networks are specifically designed for core field workers like doctors, scientists, engineers, members of the corporate industries. A very good example for this type of network is LinkedIn. Networks for Fine Arts:These types of social networks are dedicated to people linked with music, painting and related arts and have lots of useful networking information for all aspiring people of the same line. Police and Military Networks: These types of networks, though not on a public domain, operate much like social networks on a private domain due to the confidentiality of information. Sporting Networks: These types of social networks are dedicated to people of the sporting fraternity and have a gamut of information related to this field. Examples of these include Athlinks. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 45 Q.37 What is the major APPLICATION of Web 2.0 ? MT : Social networks built on Web 2.0 concepts has become so cost affordable and easy to use that more and more people are migrating to this wave. Web 2.0 finds applications in different fields, some of which are as follows: Social Media: ÿSocial Media/Social Network is an important application of web 2.0. ÿAs it provides a fundamental shift in the way people communicate and share information. ÿThe social web offers a number of online tools and platforms that could be used by the users to share their data, perspectives, and opinions among other user communities. Marketing: ÿWeb 2.0 offers excellent opportunities for marketing by engaging customers in various stages of the product development cycle. ÿIt allows the marketers to collaborate with consumers on various aspects such as product development, service enhancement, and promotion. ÿCollaboration with the business partners and consumers can be improved by the companies by utilizing the tools provided by Web 2.0 paradigm. ÿConsumer-oriented companies use networks such as Twitter and Facebook as common elements of multichannel promotion of their products. Education: ÿWeb 2.0 technologies can help the education scenario by providing students and faculty with more opportunities to interact and collaborate with their peers. ÿBy utilizing the tools of Web 2.0, the students get the opportunity to share what they learn with other peers by collaborating with them. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 46 Q.38 What is benefits for social media by using web 2.0 ? MT : A B C Social Platform It has provided a number of benefits to social networks. These are followings : 1. ( Adoption Fast ) Web 2.0 techniques are very people centric activities and thus, adaptation is very fast. 2. ( Blogging) Concepts of Web 2.0 like blogging are some things that people do on a day-to- day basis and no new knowledge skills are required. 3. ( Closer i.e People Coming Closer) People are coming much closer to another and all social and geographical boundaries are being reduced at lightning speed, which is one of the biggest sustenance factors for any social network. 4. (Social Collaboration) Using Web 2.0 also increases the social collaborationto a very high degree and this in turn helps in achieving the goals for a social network . 5.(Platform for social Media)It provides a platform where users of the network need not to worry about the implementation or underlying technology at a very affordable cost and a very easy pickup time. Q.39 challenges for social media by using web 2.0 ? (1) One of the major aspects is data security and privacy and in such public domains, there is a huge chance of data leak and confidentiality loss. Because there are usually no centrally mandated administrative services to take care of such aspects. (2) Privacy of individual users also arises and can create a huge problem if malicious user manage to the social networks. (3) A majority of the social networks are offline, and for bringing these under the purview of online social networks, a lot of education and advertising needs to be done, which itself becomes a cost burden, when the people involved are not computer literate. (4) A huge amount of effort would be needed to promote the area in the area of world which are developing and do not have the basic amenities. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 47 Q.40 What is Web 3.0 ? ÿThe term Web 3.0, also known as the Semantic Web, describes sites wherein the computers will be generated raw data on their own without direct user interaction. ÿWeb 3.0 is considered as the next logical step in the evolution of the Internet and Web technologies. ÿFor Web 1.0 and Web 2.0; the Internet is confined within the physical walls of the computer, but as more and more devices such as smart phones, cars and other household appliances become connected to the web, the Internet will be omnipresent and could be utilized in the most efficient manner. ÿWeb 2.0 technologies allows the use of read/write web, blogs, interactive web applications, rich media, tagging or folksonomy while sharing content, and also social networking sites focusing on communities. ÿBut At the same time, Web 3.0 standard uses semantic web technology, drag and drop mash-ups, widgets, user behavior, user engagement, and consolidation of dynamic web contents depending on the interest of the individual users. Web 3.0 technology uses the “Data Web” Technology, which features the data records that are publishable and reusable on the web through queryable formats. ÿThe Web 3.0 standard also incorporates the latest researches in the field of artificial intelligence. ÿAn example of typical Web 3.0 application is the one that uses content management systems along with artificial intelligence. These systems are capable of answering the questions posed by the users, because the application is able to think on its own and find the most probable answer, depending on the context, to the query submitted by the user. In this way, Web 3.0 can also be described as a “machine to user”standard in the internet. The two major components of Web 3.0 are as follows: 1) Semantic Web: ÿThis provides the web user a common framework that could be used to share and reuse the data across various applications, enterprises, and community boundaries. ÿThis allows the data and information to be readily intercepted by machines, so that the machines are able to take contextual decisions on their own by finding, combining and acting upon relevant information on the web. Chapter 8 Emerging Technology By : Pardeep Rohilla Page 48 2) Web Services: ÿIt is a software system that supports computer-to-computer interaction over the Internet. ÿFor example - the popular photo-sharing website Flickr provides a web service that could be utilized and the developers to programmatically interface with Flickr in order to search for images.

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