More About Capital and Revenue Expenditures:
Capitalized or Deferred Revenue Expenditures:
Where a certain revenue expenditure incurred is of such a nature that its benefit is likely to be spread over a certain number of years, or where it is of non-recurring and special nature and large in amount, in such circumstances, instead of debiting the entire amount to the profit and loss account of the year in which it has been incurred, it may be spread over a number of years, a proportionate amount being charged to each year's profit and loss account. The remaining portion of the expenditure is carried forward and is known as capital expenditure or or deferred revenue expenditure and is shown as an asset in the balance sheet. Item such as preliminaryexpenses, cost of issue of debentures are examples that may be classified under this head.
Exceptions to General rules:
There are certain expenses which are usually of a revenue in nature but under certain circumstances they become capital expenditures. The following are the examples of expenses which are usually revenue but under certain circumstances become capital.
These are, as a rule, revenue charges, but legal charges incurred in connection with the purchase of a fixed asset are capital expenditures as they form an additional cost of the asset acquired.
Wages are ordinary a revenue expenditure. But in a manufacturing business where the firm's own men are employed in making of fixed asset, the wages paid for such purpose would be capitalized. For example if the firm's own men are employed in making extension to the factory building or in erection of plant or manufacturing tools for own requirements. the wages and salaries paid to the persons are not revenue but capital expenditures.
Brokerage and Stamp Duty:
Normally these are revenue expenditures, but brokerage paid on acquisition of a property and stamp duty involved thereon can be capitalized.
Freight and Carriage:
This is revenue charge, but freight and carriage paid on newly acquired plant or fixed assets are capital expenditures.
Ordinarily amount expended on advertising is revenue charge but the cost of special advertising undertaken for the purpose of introducing a new line of goods may be capitalized.
In concern like collieries, mines, tea, rubber etc., all expenses incurred during the period of development are treated as capital.
These are the expenses incurred in connection with the formation of a public company. These expenses although are revenue in nature but are allowed to be capitalized and can be shown as an asset in the balance sheet.