Additional Duty (Countervailing Duty) (CVD):
This additional duty is levied under section 3 (1) of the Custom Tariff Act and is equal to excise duty levied on a like product manufactured or produced in India. If a like product is not manufactured or produced in India, the excise duty that would be leviable on that product had it been manufactured or produced in India is the duty payable. If the product is leviable at different rates, the highest rate among those rates is the rate applicable. Such duty is leviable on the value of goods plus basic custom duty payable. eg. If the customs value of goods is Rs. 5000 and rate of basic customs duty is 10% and excise duty on similar goods produced in India is 20%, CVD will be Rs.1100/-.
The Customs Act was formulated in 1962 to prevent illegal imports and exports of goods. Besides, all imports are sought to be subject to a duty with a view to affording protection to indigenous industries as well as to keep the imports to the minimum in the interests of securing the exchange rate of Indian currency.
Duties of customs are levied on goods imported or exported from India at the rate specified under the customs Tariff Act, 1975 as amended from time to time or any other law for the time being in force. For the purpose of exercising proper surveillance over imports and exports, the Central Government has the power to notify the ports and airports for the unloading of the imported goods and loading of the exported goods, the places for clearance of goods imported or to be exported, the routes by which above goods may pass by land or inland water into or out of Indian and the ports which alone shall be coastal ports.
In order to give a broad guide as to classification of goods for the purpose of duty liability, the central Board of Excises Customs (CBEC) bring out periodically a book called the "Indian Customs Tariff Guide" which contains various tariff rulings issued by the CBEC. The Act also contains detailed provisions for warehousing of the imported goods and manufacture of goods is also possible in the warehouses.
For a person who do not actually import or export goods customs has relevance in so far as they bring any baggage from abroad.
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