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Discussion > Students > CS >

Cost of acquisition

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Persuing CS

[ Scorecard : 254]
Posted On 26 June 2012 at 18:48 Report Abuse

 

Cost of acquisition of an asset is the value for which it was acquired by the assessee. Expenses of capital nature for completing or acquiring the title to the property are includible in the cost of acquisition. You should note these points:

  • Ground rent cannot be said to be expenditure incurred by the assessee for the acquisition of the capital asset and it cannot, therefore, be included in computing the actual cost to the assessee of the capital asset
  • Interest on moneys borrowed to purchase asset is part of actual cost of asset.
  • Expenses on suits for amending articles of association are of a capital nature and are a part of the cost of shares
  • Litigation expenses incurred for compelling the company to register the shares in the name of the assessee would be of capital nature, forming a part of the cost of acquisition of the shares
  • Estate duty paid in respect of inherited property can neither be treated as a part of the cost of acquisition of property nor as cost of improvement

NOTIONAL COST OF ACQUISITION - In the cases given below, the cost of acquisition is taken at notional figure:
 

Different Situations

Notional Cost of acquisition

1. Additional compensation in the case of compulsory acquisition

NIL

2. Assets received by a member on liquidation of the company

Fair market value of such asset on the date of distribution

3. Stock or shares becoming property of the assessee on consolidation, conversion, etc.

Cost of acquisition of such stock or shares from which such asset is derived

4. Allotment of shares in an amalgamated Indian company to the shareholders of amalgamating company in a scheme of amalgamation of the two companies

Cost of acquisition of shares in the amalgamating company

5. Conversion of shares into debentures

That part of the cost of debentures in relation to which such asset is acquired by the assessee

6. Allotment of shares/securities by a company to its employees under Employees’ Stock Option Plan/Scheme approved by Central Government

  • If the option is exercised by the employee during the previous year 1999-2000: Market value at the time of subscripttion
  • If the option is exercised in any other year : Amount actually paid by the employee

7. Allotment of shares in Indian resulting company to the shareholders of demerged company

Cost of acquisition of shares in demerged company × Net book value of assets transferred in demerger ÷ Net worth of the demerged company immediately before demerger

8. Cost of acquisition of original shares in demerged company after demerger

Cost of acquisition of such shares minus amount calculated above

9. Depreciable assets covered by section 50

The opening balance of the block of assets on the first day of the previous year plus actual cost of the assets acquired during the year and which fall within the same block of assets

10. Depreciable assets of a power generating unit as covered by section 50A

The written down value of the asset minus terminal depreciation plus balancing charge

11. Undertaking/division acquired by way of slump sale as covered under section 50B

Net worth of such undertaking

12. New asset acquired for claiming exemption under section 54, 54B, 54D or 54G if it is transferred within three years

Actual cost of acquisition minus exemption claimed under these sections

13. Goodwill of business or trade mark or brand name associated with business or right to manufacture, produce or process any article or thing or right to carry on any business, tenancy right, stage permits or loom hours

  • If these assets were acquired by gift, will, etc., under section 49(1) and the previous owner had purchased these assets: Cost of acquisition to the previous owner
  • If the owner has purchased these assets: Actual cost of acquisition is taken
  • If these assets are self generated: Zero

14. Right shares

Amount actually paid by assessee

15. Right to subscribe to shares (i.e., right entitlement)

NIL

16. Bonus shares

  • If allotted to the assessee before April 1, 1981 : Fair market value on that date
  • In any other case: Nil

17. Allotment of equity shares and right to trade in stock exchange, allotted to members of stock exchange under a scheme of demutualisation or corporatisation of stock exchanges in India as approved by SEBI

  • Cost of acquisition of shares: Cost of acquisition of  original membership of the stock exchange
  • Cost of acquisition of trading or clearing rights of the stock exchange: Nil

18. Any other capital asset

 

  • If it became the property of the assessee before April 1, 1981 by gift, will, etc., in modes specified in section 49(1)

Cost of acquisition to the previous owner or fair market value as on April 1, 1981, whichever is higher

  • if it became the property of the assessee before April 1, 1981

Cost of acquisition or fair market value as on April 1, 1981 whichever is more

  • if it became the property of the assessee after April 1, 1981 by gift, will, etc., in modes specified in section 49(1)

Cost of acquisition to the previous owner

  • if it became the property of the assessee after April, 1 1981

Actual cost of acquisition

 

COST TO THE PREVIOUS OWNER [SEC. 49(1)] - The cost to the previous owner is deemed to be the cost of acquisition to the assessee in cases where a capital asset becomes the property of the assessee under any mode of transfer described below [sec. 49(1)]::

  1. acquisition of property on any distribution of assets on the total or partial partition of a Hindu undivided family;
  2. acquisition of property under a gift or will;
  3. acquisition of property
    1. by succession, inheritance or devolution, or
    2. on any distribution of assets on the dissolution of a firm, body of individuals or other association of persons where such dissolution had taken place before April 1, 1987, or
    3. on any distribution of assets on the liquidation of a company, or
    4. under a transfer to a revocable or an irrevocable trust, or
    5. on any transfer by a wholly-owned Indian subsidiary company from its holding company, or
    6. on any transfer, by an Indian holding company from its wholly-owned subsidiary company, or
    7. on any transfer, in a scheme of amalgamation, by the amalgamated company from the amalgamating company which comes under section 47(vi)/(via), or
  4. acquisition of property, by a Hindu undivided family where one of its members has converted his self-acquired property into joint family property after December 31, 1969.

In the aforesaid circumstances, cost to the previous owner would be taken as cost to the assessee. Where the previous owner has acquired the property in the aforesaid manner, the previous owner of the property means the last previous owner who acquired the property by means other than those discussed above. Cost of any improvement of the asset borne by the previous owner, or the assessee, will be added to such cost.

COST OF ACQUISITION BEING THE FAIR MARKET VALUE AS ON APRIL 1, 1981 [SEC. 55(2)] - In the following cases, the assessee may take at his option, either the actual cost or the fair market value of the asset (other than a depreciable asset), as on April 1, 1981 as cost of acquisition :

  • where the capital asset became the property of the assessee before April 1, 1981 ; or
  • where the capital asset became the property of the assessee by any mode referred to in section 49(1) and the capital asset became the property of the previous owner before April 1, 1981.

COST OF ACQUISITION IN THE CASE OF DEPRECIABLE ASSETS [SEC. 50] - Under the new system of providing depreciation on block of assets, written down value of any block of assets may be reduced to nil for any of the following two reasons :

  • Situation one [Sec. 50(1)] - The moneys receivable by the assessee in regard to the assets sold or otherwise transferred during the previous year together with the amount of scrap value may exceed the written down value at the beginning of the year as increased by the actual cost of assets acquired during the previous year.
  • Situation two [Sec. 50(2)] - All the assets in the relevant block may be transferred during the year.

Capital gains in the aforesaid two cases will be determined as under :

  • Situation one [Sec. 50(1)] - In a case where any block of assets does not cease to exist but full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of transfer of the depreciable asset by the assessee during the previous year exceeds the following amounts, namely :
    • expenditure incurred wholly or exclusively in connection with such transfer or transfers ;
    • the written down value of the block of assets at the beginning of the previous year ; and
    • the actual cost of any asset falling within the block of assets acquired during the previous year,

          Such excess shall be deemed to be short-term capital gain.
 

  • Situation two [Sec. 50(2)] - Sub-section (2) of section 50 is applicable only where any block of assets ceases to exist because all assets in that block are sold during the previous year. The cost of acquisition in such a case shall be the aggregate of the following :
    • written down value of block of assets at the beginning of the previous year ; and
    • actual cost of any asset falling within that block of assets acquired by the assessee during the previous year.

If the consideration received falls short of the cost of acquisition (as computed supra) and expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer by virtue of section 48(i), the shortfall will be short-term capital loss. On the other hand, if consideration so received exceeds the cost of acquisition and expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with the transfer, the excess will be chargeable to tax as short-term capital gain.

COST OF ACQUISITION IN THE CASE OF BONUS SHARES
Section 55 has been amended with effect from the assessment year 1996-97 so as to specify that the cost of acquisition of any additional financial asset as bonus shares or security or otherwise which is received without any payment by the assessee on the basis of his holding any financial asset shall be taken to be nil.

Different Situations

Cost of acquisition if original and bonus shares are transferred after March 31, 1995

If original shares and bonus shares are acquired before April 1, 1981  

Original shares - Actual cost or fair market value on April 1, 1981, whichever is more
Bonus shares - Fair market value on April 1, 1981

If original shares are acquired before April 1, 1981 but bonus shares are allotted after April 1, 1981

Original shares - Actual cost or fair market value on April 1, 1981, whichever is more
Bonus shares - Nil

If original and bonus shares are acquired after April 1, 1981

Original shares - Actual cost
Bonus shares - Nil

 

Moreover, in the case of a capital asset being a share, security or unit which is allotted without any payment on the basis of holding of any other financial asset, the period for treating such share, security or unit as a short-term capital asset shall be calculated from the date of allotment of such share, security or unit as the case may be.

COST OF ACQUISITION IN THE CASE OF RIGHT SHARES AND RIGHT RENOUNCEMENTS
Cost of acquisition in different situations will be as follows:
 

Different Situations

Cost of acquistion

Original shares (on basis of which the taxpayer becomes entitled to right shares)

Amount actually paid for acquiring shares

Rights entitlement (which is renounced by the assessee in favour of a person)

NIL

Rights shares acquired by the taxpayer by exercising his rights entitlement

Amount actually paid by the taxpayer for acquiring asset

Rights shares purchased by the person in whose favour the rights entitlement has been renounced

Purchase price paid to renouncer of rights entitlement plus amount paid to the company which has allotted the rights shares.

 

COST OF ACQUISITION IN THE CASE OF ADVANCE MONEY RECEIVED [SEC. 51] - In computing the cost of acquisition, where any capital asset was, on any previous occasion, subject to negotiations for its transfer, any advance, or other money received and forfeited by the assessee in respect of such negotiation is to be deducted from the cost for which the asset was acquired.

COST OF ACQUISITION WHEN DEBENTURES ARE CONVERTED INTO SHARES [SEC. 49(2A)] - Any transfer by way of conversion of debentures, debenture-stock, or deposit certificates in any form, of a company into shares or debentures of that company will not be regarded as a transfer giving rise to any capital gains. Further, it is also provided that on the sale of shares or debentures received on such conversion, the capital gain shall be computed by taking the cost of acquisition as that part of the cost of debentures, debenture-stock or deposit certificates which has been appropriated towards the shares or debentures.

INDEXED COST OF ACQUISITION
Explanation (iii) to section 48 defines the term “indexed cost of acquisition” as the amount which bears to the cost of acquisition, the same proportion as the cost inflation index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the cost inflation index for the first year in which the asset was held by the assessee or for the year beginning on April 1, 1981, whichever is later.


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CA Prateek Garg
Consultant

[ Scorecard : 149]
Posted On 26 June 2012 at 18:56

its nice...this concept is very imp whn studying capital gain.



Total thanks : 1 times




Nitil Kr. Agarwala
Persuing CS

[ Scorecard : 254]
Posted On 26 June 2012 at 19:00

Yes and i got this note while i was solving my Test Papers for Tax law for CS recently.




KRISHNAPRASAD IYER
B.Com , CA Final

[ Scorecard : 567]
Posted On 26 June 2012 at 19:03

Good explanation for cost of acquisition...yes



Total thanks : 1 times



Chandan Deshmukh
Student

[ Scorecard : 41]
Posted On 14 July 2012 at 14:27

Thanks.. very nice explnation.. 



There are 4 Replies to this message








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