Value Added Statement may be called the part of the development in the financial reporting but the concept of Value Added is considered old.
Accountants in UK have periodically deliberated upon that the concept should be incorporated in Financial Accounting Practice. In 1975 the Accounting Standard Board (ASB) of UK advocated the publication of Value Added Statement along with the conventional annual corporate reports. Subsequently large British Companies included Value Added Statement in their annual reports.
In this context UK have given the conceptcalled Enterprise Concept or Enterprise Theory. As per enterprise concept profit is calculated for :-
4.Providers of long term finance
6.Entity ( Legal Body)
Such profit is called Value Added.
“Value Added is the wealth generated by the entity through the collective efforts of capital providers, management and employees”.
Value Added Statement :A statement of Value Added represents the profit and loss accounts in different and possibly in more useful manner. The Value Added Statement is divided into two parts :-
The first part shows low Value Added is arrived at the end and
The second part shows the application of such Value Added.
Advantages of Value Added Statement
The various advantages of definingincome in such a way are as follows:-
1.Value Added Statement reflects a broader view of the companies objectives and responsibilities, so it improve the attitude of the employees towards the employing company.
2.Value Added Statement makes it easier for the company to introduce the productivity linked bonus scheme for employees based on Value Added for this Value Added payroll ratio is used as a basis.
3.Value Added provides a very good measure of the size and importance of a company.
4.Value Added Statement link a companies financial accounts to the
National Income. A companiesValue Added Statement indicates the
companies contribution to National Income. As Value Added
Statement is based on the System Of National Accounts given by
UNO to calculate GDP and India signatory to it.
Value Added Statement (Gross Value Added)
(Sale of scrap, Royalty, etc)
Expenditure/ Cost of bought in Material and Services (BIMS)
All expenses, Direct, Indirect Except :
Interest on Long Term Finance
Dividend/ Shareholders Charge
Value Added by trading/Manufacturing Activities
Total(A - B)
Extraordinary Items (Abnormal)
GROSS VALUE ADDED
Providers of Long Term Finance
1: Employees include Permanent , Temporary workers, white collard, casual labour and traders etc. Amount paid or payable to employees can be in cash or in kind (Perquisite)
·Staff welfare expenses is considered as Application not expense
·Official tour and traveling is considered as expence
·Auditors are not employees
2: Directors include whole time, part time, managing Directors, executive directors, non executive director benefit any be in cash or in kind.
Directors sitting fees is considered as expences.
3: Government Taxes:- They may be of two types :
Eg. Excise Duty, Service Tax, Sales Tax / VAT
Income Tax, Wealth tax, House Tax, Cess, Local Tax
These taxes are not contribution towards government since they are recoverable.
These taxes are applicable towards government since they are not recoverable.
These are shown as expences
These taxes are application towards government since they are not recoverable.
Provision for deferred tax liability (DTL) is considered as application towards entity not for government.
4: Providers of finance means long term finance. Debentures are considered as long erm finance.
5: Share holders means equity and preference share holder. All dividend will be included in application.
6: Towards entity include all reserves generated during the year. Retained earning during the year is also application towards entity.
Value added before depreciation is called Gross Value added.
Therefore NVA = GVA – Depreciation
Economic Value Added
Economic Value Added is used to measure earning efficiency of an ENTITY.
Economic Value Added is simply the operating profit after tax (-) Charge for Capital , Equity, Debt used in the business.
In addition Economic Value Added is a management tool which helps the managers to take their decisions for increasing shareholders wealth. It includes some strategic decisions such as what investment to make, what financial structure is needed etc.
EVA= ( ROC – WACC ) OC
ROC= Return on Operating Capital
WACC= Weighted Average Cost of Capital
OC= Operating Profit
ROC =Net Operating Profit After Tax / Capital Employed* 100
NOPAT = EBIT(-) Net Operating Income (-) taxes
Capital Employed = Debt + Equity
WACCincludes Ke, Kd, Kp.
Ke = Rf + b (Rm –Rf)
Rf = Risk free Return
Rm= Market Rate of Return
Market Value Added
Market Value Added is the difference between the current value of a firm and the capital contribution by investors. If Market Value Added is positive the firm has added value. If it is negative the firm has destroyed it.
To find out whether management has created or destroyed value since its inception, the firm`s Market Value Added can be used.
MVA = MV of Capital Employed – Capital employed
This method is used only for Listed company.
There is an alternative method to calculate Market Value Added which is known as Capitalization Method ;
MVA =Economic Value Added / Discount Rate.
Higher the Market Value Added, its better.
A high Market Value Added indicates that company has created substantial wealth for shareholders.
A negative Market Value Added means that the value of action and investment of management is less than the value of capital contributed to the company by the capital by the capital market i.e. wealth or value has been destroyed.